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Since the 1970s treatment for obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) has consisted of the the application of drugs acting on the serotonin system of the brain or psychological treatments using graded exposure. Although there is a large number of studies on psychological treatments, they often are underpowered. Other major methodological issues include ignoring the effects of medication during the trial, using a variety of techniques and using waiting list data as controls.
We decided to systematically review and perform a meta-analysis on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of CBT with ERP (abbreviated to ERP)1.
The study was preregistered in PROSPERO (CRD42019122311). RCTs incorporating ERP were examined. The primary outcome was the end-of-trial symptoms scores for OCD. In addition, factors which may have influenced the outcome including patient-related factors, type of control intervention, researcher allegiance and other potential forms of bias were examined. The moderating effects of patient-related and study-related factors including type of control intervention and risk of bias were also examined.
Overall, 36 studies were included in the analyses, involving 537 children/adolescents and 1483 adults (total 2020 subjects). A total of 1005 received ERP and the remainder a variety of control treatments. Initial results showed that ERP had a large effect size compared with placebo treatments. This was more marked in younger than older persons. However, whereas ERP was markedly more effective than waiting list or psychological control, this positive effect size disappeared when it was compared with other psychological treatments.
When ERP was compared against psychopharmacological treatment it initially appeared significantly superior but this reduced to marginal benefit when compared with adequate doses of appropriate medication.
The majority of studies were performed where there may be expected to be researcher allegiance to ERP and in these studies the effect size was large. In contrast, in the 8 studies considered to have low risk of researcher bias, ERP was found to be ineffective.
Although on initial sight CBT incorporating ERP seems to be highly efficacious in the treatment of OCD, further analysis revealed that this varied depending on the choice of comparator control. In addition there are considerable concerns about methodological rigour and reporting of studies using CBT with ERP. Further studies examining the role of researcher bias and allegiance are needed.
Ref : 1 Jemma E Reid, Keith R Laws, Lynne Drummond, Matteo Vismara, Benedetta Grancini , Davis Mpavaenda, Naomi A Fineberg (2021) Cognitive Behavioural Therapy with Exposure and Response Prevention in the treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Comprehensive Psychiatry , in press.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and tic disorder (TD) represent highly disabling, chronic and often comorbid psychiatric conditions. While recent studies showed a high risk of suicide for patients with OCD, little is known about those patients with comorbid TD (OCTD). Aim of this study was to characterize suicidal behaviors among patients with OCD and OCTD.
Three hundred and thirteen outpatients with OCD (n = 157) and OCTD (n = 156) were recruited from nine different psychiatric Italian departments and assessed using an ad-hoc developed questionnaire investigating, among other domains, suicide attempt (SA) and ideation (SI). The sample was divided into four subgroups: OCD with SA (OCD-SA), OCD without SA (OCD-noSA), OCTD with SA (OCTD-SA), and OCTD without SA (OCTD-noSA).
No differences between groups were found in terms of SI, while SA rates were significantly higher in patients with OCTD compared to patients with OCD. OCTD-SA group showed a significant male prevalence and higher unemployment rates compared to OCD-SA and OCD-noSA sample. Both OCTD-groups showed an earlier age of psychiatric comorbidity onset (other than TD) compared to the OCD-SA sample. Moreover, patients with OCTD-SA showed higher rates of other psychiatric comorbidities and positive psychiatric family history compared to the OCD-SA group and to the OCD-noSA groups. OCTD-SA and OCD-SA samples showed higher rates of antipsychotics therapies and treatment resistance compared to OCD-noSA groups.
Patients with OCTD vs with OCD showed a significantly higher rate of SA with no differences in SI. In particular, OCTD-SA group showed different unfavorable epidemiological and clinical features which need to be confirmed in future prospective studies.
Bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are prevalent, comorbid, and disabling conditions, often characterized by early onset and chronic course. When comorbid, OCD and BD can determine a more pernicious course of illness, posing therapeutic challenges for clinicians. Available reports on prevalence and clinical characteristics of comorbidity between BD and OCD showed mixed results, likely depending on the primary diagnosis of analyzed samples.
We assessed prevalence and clinical characteristics of BD comorbidity in a large international sample of patients with primary OCD (n = 401), through the International College of Obsessive–Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS) snapshot database, by comparing OCD subjects with vs without BD comorbidity.
Among primary OCD patients, 6.2% showed comorbidity with BD. OCD patients with vs without BD comorbidity more frequently had a previous hospitalization (p < 0.001) and current augmentation therapies (p < 0.001). They also showed greater severity of OCD (p < 0.001), as measured by the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS).
These findings from a large international sample indicate that approximately 1 out of 16 patients with primary OCD may additionally have BD comorbidity along with other specific clinical characteristics, including more frequent previous hospitalizations, more complex therapeutic regimens, and a greater severity of OCD. Prospective international studies are needed to confirm our findings.
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic, highly disabling condition associated with psychiatric/medical comorbidity and substantive morbidity, mortality, and suicide risks. In prior reports, varying parameters have been associated with suicide risk.
To evaluate sociodemographic and clinical variables characterizing Italian individuals with BD with versus without prior suicide attempt (PSA).
A sample of 362 Italian patients categorized as BD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM IV-TR) was assessed and divided in 2 subgroups: with and without PSA. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were compared between prior attempters and non-attempters using corrected multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA).
More than one-fourth of BD patients (26.2%) had a PSA, with approximately one-third (31%) of these having>1 PSA. Depressive polarity at onset, higher number of psychiatric hospitalizations, comorbid alcohol abuse, comorbid eating disorders, and psychiatric poly-comorbidity were significantly more frequent (p<.05) in patients with versus without PSA. Additionally, treatment with lithium, polypharmacotherapy (≥4 current drugs) and previous psychosocial rehabilitation were significantly more often present in patients with versus without PSA.
We found several clinical variables associated with PSA in BD patients. Even though these retrospective findings did not address causality, they could be clinically relevant to better understanding suicidal behavior in BD and adopting proper strategies to prevent suicide in higher risk patients.
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