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There is no evidence on influence of HBV/HCV co-infection on survival characteristics in population with dual disorders.
To determine the impact of HBV/HCV co-infection on the long-term survival of schizophrenic patients with co-occurring substance use disorders.
Charts of 223 subjects admitted from January 1, 2002 to May 31, 2006 were assessed. The Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was used to estimate the cumulative survival rates. The association between HBV/HCV and mortality was estimated using the Cox proportional-hazard regression models, with adjustments for potential confounders. The main outcome was all-cause mortality. Median observation time was 10.3 years.
Total all-cause 11 year, unadjusted mortality was 18.0% in population with no viral hepatitis (VH) infection (n = 185; 83.0%), 66.7% in population with HBV monoinfection (n = 3; 1.3%), 50.0% in population with HCV monoinfection (n = 28; 12.6%), and 64.3% in population with HBV/HCV co-infection (n = 7; 3.1%), P < 0.00001. In Cox regression, the adjusted hazard ratio was 4.22 (95% CI: 1.00–18.63; P < 0.05) for the HBV, 4.24 (95% CI: 2.13–8.47; P < 0.00001) for the HCV, 6.18 (95% CI: 2.01–19.01; P < 0.0015) for the HBV/HCV, all vs. no VH-infection.
The high mortality of schizophrenic dual disorders patients with HBV/HCV necessitates new approaches to secondary and tertiary prevention to reduce the burden of chronic liver disease and to improve survival. The strong adverse effect of HBV/HCV on survival should encourage clinical trials including schizophrenic dual disorders patients on whether patients benefit from treatment choices. It is essential that adequate resources and strategies are targeted to the schizophrenic dual disorders patients with HBV/HCV.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Controversial Jewish journalist and political lobbyist Lucien Wolf (1857–1930) co-founded the Jewish Historical Society of England in 1893, editing this work in 1901. It comprises a series of pamphlets and tracts written by Menasseh ben Israel (1604–57). An Amsterdam rabbi and founder of the city's first Hebrew publishing house, Menasseh was well regarded among non-Jewish theologians. As an advocate of messianic tradition, he sought to scatter the Jews across the world, leading him to England in the 1650s to campaign for their readmission following Edward I's edict of expulsion in 1290. The material presented here is chiefly concerned with Menasseh's interactions with Oliver Cromwell and shows the rabbi taking advantage of the contemporary drive for reinstatement for reasons of religious toleration as well as practical politics. The work includes the famous petition from the Jewish community and offers valuable insight into the history of the Jews in England.
During large-scale, sudden-onset disasters, resscue personnel experience severe stress due to the brief window of opportunity for saving lives. Following the earthquake in Haiti, rescue personnel worked in Port-au-Prince under harsh conditions in order to save lives and extricate bodies. Reactions to this disaster among rescue personnel were examined using self-report questionnaires. Correlations between psychosocial factors and psychological trauma (dissociation and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms) were examined in a sample of 20 rescue personnel who worked in Haiti. The study indicated that negative affect and crisis of meaning were associated with higher levels of dissociative and PTSD symptoms. The results suggest that rescue personnel who are overwhelmed by the destruction and number of bodies being extricated may exhibit negative affect and loss of meaning along with dissociative and PTSD symptoms.