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This study investigated the characteristics of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) and their association with current and future cognitive functions.
A cohort of 209 community-dwelling individuals without dementia aged 47–90 years old was recruited for this 3-year study. Participants underwent neuropsychological and clinical assessments annually. Participants were divided into SMCs and non-memory complainers (NMCs) using a single question at baseline and a memory complaints questionnaire following baseline, to evaluate differential patterns of complaints. In addition, comprehensive assessment of memory complaints was undertaken to evaluate whether severity and consistency of complaints differentially predicted cognitive function.
SMC and NMC individuals were significantly different on various features of SMCs. Greater overall severity (but not consistency) of complaints was significantly associated with current and future cognitive functioning.
SMC individuals present distinctive features of memory complaints as compared to NMCs. Further, the severity of complaints was a significant predictor of future cognition. However, SMC did not significantly predict change over time in this sample. These findings warrant further research into the specific features of SMCs that may portend subsequent neuropathological and cognitive changes when screening individuals at increased future risk of dementia.
To define the predictive value of clinical diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or suspected COPD in primary care patients with spirometric criteria for diagnosis.
The diagnosis of COPD is usually made clinically but often not confirmed by diagnostic testing. Recent initiatives have called for universal spirometry testing in primary care to diagnose and monitor such patients the implications of this policy on diagnostic accuracy are not as yet known.
Retrospective comparative analysis of 677 consecutive primary care referrals to a district general hospital lung function laboratory for spirometry, March 1998 to December 2006.
Five hundred and three of 677 patients referred for open access spirometry had a primary care clinical diagnosis or suspected diagnosis of COPD. When compared with NICE spirometric criteria for diagnosis of COPD, 141 patients (28%) had normal spirometry, 46 (9%) had reversible airflow obstruction and 14 (3%) a restrictive pattern of spirometry. The positive predictive value of a primary care clinical diagnosis of COPD was 0.62 for patients referred for assessment of severity and 0.56 for those referred for diagnostic testing. Clinical suspicion of COPD in this sample was not confirmed by spirometry in a high proportion of referred patients. The introduction of the widespread use of spirometry for confirmation of primary care clinician made COPD diagnosis have important implications for both individual patients and primary care service planning.
The fuel used for motor-sledging during Scott's 1910–1913 expedition has been reanalysed to assess its suitability for that task in Antarctica. A research octane number of 65 and volatility were low compared with modern fuels but probably suitable when considering the design of the flathead engine. The findings are consistent with view that engine design was the primary cause of the mechanical failings.
The morphology characteristic of acid-washed and annealed MgO (100) surfaces used as substrates for pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) is studied employing TEM, SEM and AFM. Each of these three microscopal techniques provides information not so readily accessible by and complementary to the other two techniques, leading to a more rounded view of the characteristic morphology of these surfaces.
The phenomenon of graphoepitaxy, whereby island nucleation occurs preferentially at steps, is a prime example of a manner in which the substrate morphology (and notably surface steps) can affect the microstructure of as-deposited thin-films. This paper provides a further illustration of the fundamental importance of the substrate morphology to the development of the thin-film microstructure, employing the example of TiO2 deposited by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) directly onto specially prepared (100) MgO TEM foils. The same areas of these foils are imaged both before and after deposition.
Preliminary results from a study of the morphology of the MgO (100) surface after chemical etching followed by heat-treatment in air are presented. Contrast arising from the surface-steps so formed is found to be strongly dependent on the deviation parameter, suggesting that many of the step-faces are not perpendicular to the (100) foil plane but are, instead, often rather shallowly inclined.
Conditions are established whereby step heights may be measured in the acid-washed and air-annealed MgO single-crystals currently employed as substrates for pulsed-laser-deposition. Preliminary data indicates that the steps are typically a few nanometers in height.
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