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The effects of hydrogen on the structure of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses were investigated by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. Three lifetime components are identified, indicating the presence of three distinct size ranges for open volume defects in the glass. The concentration of the smallest sites identified as tetrahedral interstitial holes in the densely packed and the intermediate sites identified as flow defects, changes with hydrogen addition. The concentration of tetrahedral interstitial holes in Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 alloys initially increases with the increase of hydrogen content. When Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 alloys were prepared in Ar + 10%H2 atmospheres, the concentration of tetrahedral interstitial holes reaches a maximum, which may provide a more dense random-packed structure. For Zr57Al10Cu15.4Ni12.6Nb5alloys, the increase of hydrogen content causes a decrease in the concentration of tetrahedral interstitial holes and an increase in the concentration of flow defects.
Transparent p-type conducting Ga-doped SnO2 thin films were prepared using reactive rf-magnetron sputtering. Good p-type conduction was directly realized without the need of postdeposition annealing. The p-type conductivity was found to be very sensitive to the growth condition and process, suggesting that the carrier behavior is strongly related to the fine microstructure of the films. The microstructures of the films were characterized using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and specular reflectivity techniques. The valence state of the Ga dopant was measured from X-ray photoelectron spectra to explain the origin of net holes presented in the films.
The p-type conduction in transparent Ga-doped SnO2 thin films was realized and its two origins were discerned through comparison experiments associated with growth conditions, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. All the experiment results suggest that the adsorbed oxygen both in the grain boundaries and at the surfaces is another origin of the net hole conduction in the polycrystalline thin films. This mechanism provides a fairy well explanation for the growth temperature dependence of the p-type conductivities of the films. It also offers a useful guide to better the properties of p-type conducting oxide thin films.
The results of positron lifetime and Doppler broadening spectrum of defects in the hydrogen charged non-heat treatable 5xxx Al alloys are presented in this work. The yield stress of the sample was reduced for about 20 MPa after hydrogen was charged. A similar trend was observed in positron lifetime measurement, as the average lifetime τav descended remarkably to almost the level of Al matrix. The change in coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) spectroscopy was also significant, exhibited by the characteristic change in CDB radio curves of a sample before and after hydrogen was charged. After hydrogen charging, there is an obvious enhancement in the high momentum region compensating dehancement in the low momentum region. This indicates the existence of hydrogen filling effect. The vacancies around the Mg atoms should be preferential filling sites for hydrogen because Mg has a strong affinity for hydrogen. The formation of an Mg–H bond parallel to a grain boundary is an important factor in weakening the grain boundary cohesion.
Vacancy behaviors during ageing of Cu-26Zn-4A1 and Cu-14Al-4Ni alloys have been investigated and compared by means of positron annihilation (PA) and electrical resistivity measurement. For ageing in martensitic state after direct quenching, it is observed that the S parameter values of Cu-Zn- Al specimens, measured in liquid nitrogen, increase at first and then decrease, while those of Cu-Al-Ni remain unchanged. The activation energies calculated from the S parameter for increasing and decreasing stages are o.4lev and o.63ev respectively, and the former can be corresponding to the formation energy of vacancy clustering, while the latter may be regarded as the migration energy of effective vacancies. A mechanism is put forward that the clustering of quenched-in vacancies results in a decreasing of the ordering degree and a reduction of the stored energy in martensite, which is responsible for the early stage of the stabilization of martensite in Cu-Zn-Al alloys. However, the fact that Cu-Al-Ni alloy is not subject to the stabilization is assumed to be owing to the immobility of supersaturated vacancies in its martensitic state which may be associated with the strong binding force between Ni and Al atoms.
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