To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Previous studies underline the importance of internalising disorders as risk factors of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), meanwhile only a few research draw the attention to the role of externalising disorders. The possible association between NSSI and pathological internet use (PIU) is also understudied.
The purpose of this study was: 1) to investigate the frequency of NSSI among adolescents with different psychopathology and in different internet user groups of adolescents, 2) to understand the mediator role of psychiatric disorders between NSSI and PIU.
Adolescents were enrolled from a clinical (Vadaskert Child Psychiatric Hospital, Budapest, Hungary) and a school based population (high schools in Budapest, Hungary). The used measurements were: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory, Young Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet Addiction, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Kid.
There was significant difference in the frequencies of NSSI in SDQ subgroups (U=2127.000; z=-6.170; p <0.001). There was also significant difference in NSSI frequency between normal- and pathological internet users (U=2020.000; z=-2,501; p <0.017 p=0.012). According to the mediator model there was no direct association between PIU and NSSI, however it was mediated by different psychiatric disorders (affective disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, opposition defiant disorder, psychoactive substance abuse/dependence, psychotic disorders, suicidal behavior).
The results strengthen that both internalising- and externalising psychopathology are associated with NSSI. Moreover this study underlines the importance of careful screening and treating of comorbid disorders with PIU, which can have a role in the prevention of NSSI and suicide as well.
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is highly prevalent in clinical and non-clinical adolescent populations. Non-clinical studies focus on high school students thus vocational school students are underrepresented in research and prevention programs, despite being exposed to higher levels of stressful life events, a factor associated with NSSI and suicide.
This study aimed to explore NSSI, suicidal behavior and life events among adolescents in clinical and non-clinical, i.e. both high school and vocational school settings.
A clinical (n=202) and non-clinical (n=161) sample of 13-18-year-old adolescents were assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Kid, the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory, and the Life Events List. Data were analyzed with R version 3.6.1., using Wilcoxon tests and negative binomial regression models.
The prevalence of suicidal behavior (W=7.306, p<.001), NSSI (W=9.652, p<.001), and life events (W=10.410 p<.001) were significantly higher in the clinical than in the non-clinical group. The relationship between NSSI and suicidal behaviour was significantly stronger in the clinical group (95% CI: [.56,.72]) than in the nonclinical group (95% CI: [.24,.52]). The interaction between NSSI and life events (Χ2(1)=10.49, p<.01) was associated with suicidal behavior. Interpersonal events were associated with both suicidal behavior and had a moderating effect on the NSSI–suicidal behavior relationship.
NSSI is highly prevalent and is strongly associated with suicidal behavior in clinical and non-clinical adolescent populations. Our result call attention to the necessity of including adolescents from various educational settings in NSSI research and prevention projects during which life events, especially interpersonal events, might require special attention.
Adolescents have to cope with several challenges and restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic, with many of those incongruent with the typical developmental tasks of adolescent age. Some adolescent might be particularly vulnerable in this situation.
This study aimed: 1) to collect data on the mental health and quality of life of adolescents during/after the pandemic; 2. to improve adolescents’ mental health by providing an online prevention program that addresses their actual needs; 3. to accelerate the development of culturally adapted prevention programs by involving an international team, and 4. to contribute to adequate preparation for any similar situation in the future.
Participants aged 11-18 years and their parents/caregivers were recruited online. Data has been collected regularly in a follow-up study by Inventar zur Erfassung der Lebensqualitat and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The baseline data collection was in March 2020 at first restrictions of the COVID pandemic in Europe
In the baseline data 428 adolescents (29.7% boys;70.3% girls) were included. Adolescents reported significantly lower quality of life during the pandemic (F (1,557) = 29.11; p <0.001; R2 = 0.048). There was no significant difference in quality of life according to whether the adolescents live in a household with their siblings ( F (2, 356) = 0.785 p = 0.457; η2 = 0.004), and whether the adolescents have symptoms of hyperactivity (ß = 0.105; p = 0.295).
Prevention based on the results of this study is expected to contribute to maintaining adolescents’ mental health during and after the COVID pandemic.
Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care.
The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions.
We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures.
We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
Clay-based nanostructures were prepared from kaolinites of varying structural order by two different methods. In the first method the kaolinite-urea precursor, obtained by dry grinding, was intercalated further with triethanolamine and the tetraalkylammonium salt was synthesized in the interlamellar space. Exfoliation was achieved by the use of sodium polyacrylate (PAS). In the second method, the kaolinite-potassium acetate (kaolinite-KAc) precursor, obtained via two different methods, was intercalated further with ethylene glycol (EG) and then n-hexylamine (HA). Intercalation with EG was also achieved by heating either directly or with microwaves. The morphology that results depends on the method of precursor preparation, the method of heat treatment and the degree of structural order of the original clay. Higher structural order facilitates the formation of a tubular morphology, while mechanical treatment and microwave agitation may result in broken tubes. Molecular mechanical (MM) calculations showed that organo-complexes may be exfoliated to a d value of 10–11 Å.
Investigating the distant extragalactic Universe requires a subtraction of the Galactic foreground. One of the major difficulties deriving the fine structure of the galactic foreground is the embedded foreground and background point sources appearing in the given fields. It is especially so in the infrared. We report our study subtracting point sources from Herschel images with Kriging, an interpolation method where the interpolated values are modelled by a Gaussian process governed by prior covariances. Using the Kriging method on Herschel multi-wavelength observations the structure of the Galactic foreground can be studied with much higher resolution than previously, leading to a better foreground subtraction at the end.
We estimate the column density of the Galactic foreground interstellar medium (GFISM) in the direction of extragalactic sources. All-sky AKARI FIS infrared sky survey data might be used to trace the GFISM with a resolution of 2 arcminutes. The AKARI based GFISM hydrogen column density estimates are compared with similar quantities based on HI 21cm measurements of various resolution and of Planck results. High spatial resolution observations of the GFISM may be important recalculating the physical parameters of gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies using the updated foreground parameters.
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most powerful explosive events in the Universe. The prompt gamma emission is followed by an X-ray afterglow that is also detected for over nine hundred GRBs by the Swift BAT and XRT detectors. The X-ray afterglow spectrum bears essential information about the burst, and the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). Since the radiation travels through the line of sight intergalactic medium and the ISM in the Milky Way, the observed emission is influenced by extragalactic and galactic components. The column density of the Galactic foreground ranges several orders of magnitudes, due to both the large scale distribution of ISM and its small scale structures. We examined the effect of local HI column density on the penetrating X-ray emission, as the first step towards a precise modeling of the measured X-ray spectra. We fitted the X-ray spectra using the Xspec software, and checked how the shape of the initially power low spectrum changes with varying input Galactic HI column density. The total absorbing HI column is a sum of the intrinsic and Galactic component. We also investigated the model results for the intrinsic component varying the Galactic foreground. We found that such variations may alter the intrinsic hydrogen column density up to twenty-five percent. We will briefly discuss its consequences.
Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is a frequently applied method in sedimentology, especially in the determination of the orientation of transport processes. We present an analysis of magnetic fabric (MF) studies on loess. New aspects of fabric development reveal: i) The deposition of the aeolian sediments was controlled by gravity, low-energy transport and local geomorphology, hence no clarified wind direction can be defined. ii) The influence of phyllosilicates is also significant among the magnetic components. iii) While the primary MF is relatively well-defined, the secondary MF is influenced by several processes. The analysis of stereoplots combined with the q—β diagram and photostatistics showed encouraging results during the characterization of various secondary MF such as redeposited MF and pedogenic fabric. iv) Changes in processes from aeolian to water-lain deposition and the increasing transportation energy were reflected by the connection between AMS and observed micro-scale sedimentary features. v) A relationship was obvious between the degree of pedogenesis and the transformation of sedimentary MF into a vertical MF typical for paleosols. vi) The significant role of very fine grained magnetite on the formation of inverse MF could not be excluded.
The European Large-Area ISO Survey (ELAIS) N1 field is one of the extragalactic windows where the lack of the Galactic ISM allows us to analyze the unbiased FIR properties of extragalactic objects. The field was investigated recently based on Herschel observations by the HerMES key project. We present a survey of the field covering a larger area than HerMES (12.54 deg2 vs 3.47 deg2). We provide accurate 250, 350, and 500 micrometer flux densities for about 8000 point sources using the latest Herschel analysis and calibration procedures. Based on SDSS spectroscopic and SWIRE photometric data our sample has approximately 4000 and 4500 galaxies with 0.2 < z < 0.5 and z > 0.5 redshifts, respectively. The new flux densities are crucial limiting the star-forming activity of galaxies outside the Local Universe, as it is demonstrated in the star-forming galaxy 2MASS J16072472+5412119.
We studied the unbiased optical brightness distribution which was calculated from the survival analysis of host galaxies (HGs) data and its relationship with the Swift GRB data of the host galaxies observed by the Keck telescope. Based on the sample obtained from merging the Swift GRB table and the Keck optical data we also studied the dependence of this distribution on the GRB's data. Finally, we compared the HGs distribution with standard galaxies distribution of the DEEP2 redshift survey and checked the result with the VIPERS catalogue too.
The point sources in the Bright Source Catalogue (BSC) of the AKARI Far–Infrared Surveyor (FIS) were classified based on their far–IR and mid–IR fluxes and colours using Quadratic Discriminant Analysis method (QDA) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). The reliability of our results show that we can successfully separate galactic and extragalactic AKARI point sources in the multidimensional space of fluxes and colours. However, differentiating among the extragalactic sub–types needs further information.
We studied the space distribution of the starburst galaxies from Millennium XXL database at z = 0.82. We examined the starburst distribution in the classical Millennium I (De Lucia et al. (2006)) using a semi-analytical model for the genesis of the galaxies. We simulated a starburst galaxies sample with Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. The connection between the large scale structures homogenous and starburst groups distribution (Kofman and Shandarin 1998), Suhhonenko et al. (2011), Liivamägi et al. (2012), Park et al. (2012), Horvath et al. (2014), Horvath et al. (2015)) on a defined scale were checked too.
It is remarkable that the long gamma-ray bursts, as objects connected with the supernovae - i.e. with the end of the massive stars, trace the star formation rate. This connection is discussed in this contribution. The presentation is in essence a recapitulation of the article Mészáros A. et al. A&A, 2006, 455, 785.
It is remarkable that the long gamma-ray bursts, as objects connected with the supernovae - i.e. with the end-stages of massive stars, trace the star formation rate. This connection is discussed in this contribution. The presentation is in essence a recapitulation of the article by Mészáros et al. (2006).
Several statistical studies - done also by the authors of this contribution - show that there are three subclasses of gamma-ray bursts. They can be called as short, intermediate and long ones, because they can be separated with respect to their durations. The short and intermediate bursts are distributed anisotropically on the sky. This behavior is highly remarkable, and can have a cardinal impact on the cosmology. The subject of this contribution is a survey of this topic.
PbSe films were chemically deposited with a range of controlled
microstructures, from nanocrystalline to monocrystalline films. The crystal
size in the nanocrystalline films was controlled in a range 7 to 25 nm with
a fairly narrow size distribution, which allowed fine-tuning of the PbSe
energy gap. The optical properties of the films were investigated using
infrared (IR) transmission and IR photoluminescence measurements. The
nanocrystalline PbSe films showed single bandgap values in the
technologically important near-IR region. Two bandgap values, corresponding
to both bulk and confined nanocrystals, were obtained for films with mixed
microstructure. Strong blue shifts in both the absorption and emission peaks
of the nanocrystalline layers were obtained. The bandgaps of the PbSe films
were found to be in good agreement with theoretical calculations. The
results point out the potential of these films for nanoscale optical device
applications operating in the near-IR range.