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The experiments reported in this research paper aimed to determine the effect of supplementing different forms of L-methionine (L-Met) and acetate on protein synthesis in immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cell line (MAC-T cells). Treatments were Control, L-Met, conjugated L-Met and acetate (CMA), and non-conjugated L-Met and Acetate (NMA). Protein synthesis mechanism was determined by omics method. NMA group had the highest protein content in the media and CSN2 mRNA expression levels (P < 0.05). The number of upregulated and downregulated proteins observed were 39 and 77 in L-Met group, 62 and 80 in CMA group and 50 and 81 in NMA group from 448 proteins, respectively (P < 0.05). L-Met, NMA and CMA treatments stimulated pathways related to protein and energy metabolism (P < 0.05). Metabolomic analysis also revealed that L-Met, CMA and NMA treatments resulted in increases of several metabolites (P < 0.05). In conclusion, NMA treatment increased protein concentration and expression level of CSN2 mRNA in MAC-T cells compared to control as well as L-Met and CMA treatments through increased expression of milk protein synthesis-related genes and production of the proteins and metabolites involved in energy and protein synthesis pathways.
To evaluate the appropriateness of the screening strategy for healthcare personnel (HCP) during a hospital-associated Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreak, we performed a serologic investigation in 189 rRT-PCR–negative HCP exposed and assigned to MERS patients. Although 20%–25% of HCP experienced MERS-like symptoms, none of them showed seroconversion by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT).
To investigate the relationship between the thermal conductivity and the cooling rate, we have performed molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations based on a combination of the Langevin and Newton equations to deal with a heat transfer from l-Si to c-Si. The thermal conductivity of c-Si was measured by the direct method. In order to deal with finite-size effects, different cell sizes perpendicular to the direction of the heat current were used. The values of the thermal conductivity of 58 W/mK and 35.7 W/mK in the Tersoff potential were obtained at 1000 K and 1500 K, respectively. A MD cell with a length of 488.75 ¡Ê in the direction of a heat flow was used for estimating the natural cooling rate. The initial c/l interface systems were obtained by setting the temperatures of the MD cell at 1000 K and 1500 K, respectively, for Z <= 35 ¡Ê and 3800 K for Z > 35 ¡Ê. During the natural cooling processes, the temperature of the bottom 10 ¡Ê of the MD cell was controlled. The cooling rates of 7.4 × 1011 K/sec for 1000 K and 5.9 × 1011 K/sec for 1500 K were obtained, respectively.
To investigate the cooling mechanism and the local structural changes of excimer laser-annealed silicon (Si), molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed. Heat flow of molten Si showed a strong dependency of the local region during a natural cooling. An amorphous-to-liquid transition near an interface in the temperature range of 1600 K ∼ 1800 K was expected with the results of the local diffusion coefficients calculated by integrating the velocity autocorrelation functions. It was confirmed that the structure of the interface region affected the cooling rate of the overall system. The structural properties at the various local regions after a cooling were assessed in terms of the configurational properties including the coordination and bond-angle distributions. A spontaneous nucleation of Si near a interface was observed during a natural cooling.
The degradation behavior of integrated Pt/SrBi2Ta2O9/Pt capacitors caused by hydrogen impregnation during the spin-on glass (SOG)-based intermetal dielectric (IMD) process was investigated. SOG was tested as an IMD since it offers better planarity for multilevel metallization processes compared to other SiO2 deposition methods. It was found that the SOG itself does not degrade the ferroelectric performance. Deposition of an under-layer of SiOxNy by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using SiH4 + N2O + N2 source gases and a SiO2?x capping layer by another PECVD process using SiH4 + N2O source gases produced hydrogen as a reaction by-product. The hydrogen diffused into the SBT layer and degraded the ferroelectric performance during subsequent annealing cycles. A very thin (10 nm) Al2O3 layer grown by atomic layer deposition before the IMD process successfully blocked the impregnation of the hydrogen. Therefore, excellent ferroelectric performance of the SBT capacitors were maintained after the multilevel metallization process as well as passivation. The adoption of SOG in the IMD process greatly improved the surface flatness of the wafer resulting in a higher capacitor yield with very good uniformity in ferroelectric properties over the 8-in.-diameter wafer.
We report the highly reflecting (>99.9%) In0.53Al0.14Ga0.33As/In0.52Al0.48As 30.5 pairs distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and the In0.53Ga0.47As/ In0.52Al0.48As active cavity layer grown at high temperature by low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition with in-situ double beam laser reflectometry. One of the laser wavelengths selected for in-situ measurement was same as the DBR wavelength. The growth temperature was 750 °C. Good surface morphology of the multi-layer stacks was achieved by the temperature ramping of the InP buffer layer at the beginning of a multi-layer stacks. The width of stop band edge of the DBR reflectivity spectrum was found to be 1000Å.
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