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One of the founding events within narratives of Afro-Asian, South-South, and Third-World solidarity has been the 1955 Asian-African Conference held in the Indonesian city of Bandung. And one of the foundational accounts of the Asian-African Conference has been Richard Wright’s 1956 book The Color Curtain: A Report on the Bandung Conference, which Wright wrote based on a three-week sojourn in Indonesia. Drawing on alternative accounts and perspectives regarding the Bandung Conference and Wright’s concomitant interactions with Indonesian interlocutors, this essay examines Wright’s perspectives on colonialism and decolonization as well as his stance on questions of racial and colonial shame and the powers of postcolonial leaders such as Indonesia’s President Sukarno and the Gold Coast’s Kwame Nkrumah. These contexts—taken together with a historically relevant short story written by one of Wright’s main Indonesian interlocutors—illuminate the subject of Wright’s, and Bandung’s, relation to Third-World liberation in colonialism’s enduring wake.
Longitudinal evaluation of allograft diastolic function in paediatric heart transplant recipients is important for early detection of acute rejection, cardiac allograft vasculopathy, and graft dysfunction. Mean diastolic right atrial and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures obtained at catheterisation are the reference standards for assessment. Echocardiography is non-invasive and more suitable for serial surveillance, but individual parameters have lacked accuracy. This study aimed to identify covariates of post-transplant mean right atrial and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures, including B-type natriuretic peptide and certain echocardiographic parameters.
A retrospective review of 143 scheduled cardiac catheterisations and echocardiograms from 56 paediatric recipients transplanted from 2007 to 2011 was performed. Samples with rejection were excluded. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models using backward selection were applied to a database consisting of B-type natriuretic peptide, haemodynamic, and echocardiographic data.
Ln B-type natriuretic peptide, heart rate z-score, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension z-score, mitral E/e’, and percent interventricular septal thickening in systole were independently associated with mean right atrial pressure. Ln B-type natriuretic peptide, heart rate z-score, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension z-score, left ventricular mass (observed/predicted), and mitral E/e’ were independently associated with mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. Covariates of B-type natriuretic peptide included mean pulmonary artery and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures, height, haemoglobin, fractional shortening, percent interventricular septal thickening in systole, and pulmonary vascular resistance index.
B-type natriuretic peptide and echocardiographic indices of diastolic function were independently related to post-transplant mean right atrial and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures in paediatric heart transplant recipients without rejection.
This paper describes a computational investigation of multimode instability growth and multimaterial mixing induced by multiple shock waves in a high-energy-density (HED) environment, where pressures exceed 1 Mbar. The simulations are based on a series of experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and designed as an HED analogue of non-HED shock-tube studies of the Richtmyer–Meshkov instability and turbulent mixing. A three-dimensional computational modelling framework is presented. It treats many complications absent from canonical non-HED shock-tube flows, including distinct ion and free-electron internal energies, non-ideal equations of state, radiation transport and plasma-state mass diffusivities, viscosities and thermal conductivities. The simulations are tuned to the available NIF data, and traditional statistical quantities of turbulence are analysed. Integrated measures of turbulent kinetic energy and enstrophy both increase by over an order of magnitude due to reshock. Large contributions to enstrophy production during reshock are seen from both the baroclinic source and enstrophy–dilatation terms, highlighting the significance of fluid compressibility in the HED regime. Dimensional analysis reveals that Reynolds numbers and diffusive Péclet numbers in the HED flow are similar to those in a canonical non-HED analogue, but conductive Péclet numbers are much smaller in the HED flow due to efficient thermal conduction by free electrons. It is shown that the mechanism of electron thermal conduction significantly softens local spanwise gradients of both temperature and density, which causes a minor but non-negligible decrease in enstrophy production and small-scale mixing relative to a flow without this mechanism.
Indigenous Australians experience higher levels of psychological distress compared to the general population. Physical activity is a culturally acceptable approach, associated with reduction of depressive symptoms. The protective properties of physical activity for depressive symptoms are yet to be evaluated in older Indigenous Australians.
A two-phase study design comprised of a qualitative thematic analysis following a quantitative regression and moderation analysis.
Firstly, a total of 336 Indigenous Australians aged 60 years and over from five NSW areas participated in assessments on mental health, physical activity participation, and childhood trauma. Secondly, a focus group of seven Indigenous Australians was conducted to evaluate barriers and facilitators to physical activity.
Regression and moderation analyses examined links between depression, childhood trauma, and physical activity. Thematic analysis was conducted exploring facilitators and barriers to physical activity following the focus group.
Childhood trauma severity and intensity of physical activity predicted depressive symptoms. Physical activity did not affect the strength of the relationship between childhood trauma and depression. Family support and low impact activities facilitated commitment to physical activity. In contrast, poor mental health, trauma, and illness acted as barriers.
Physical activity is an appropriate approach for reducing depressive symptoms and integral in maintaining health and quality of life. While situational factors, health problems and trauma impact physical activity, accessing low-impact group activities with social support was identified to help navigate these barriers.
Feeding difficulty is a known complication of congenital heart surgery. Despite this, there is a relative sparsity in the available data regarding risk factors, incidence, associated symptoms, and outcomes.
In this retrospective chart review, patients aged 0–18 years who underwent congenital heart surgery at a single institution between January and December, 2017 were reviewed. Patients with feeding difficulties before surgery, multiple surgeries, and potentially abnormal recurrent laryngeal nerve anatomy were excluded. Data collected included patient demographics, feeding outcomes, post-operative symptoms, flexible nasolaryngoscopy findings, and rates of readmission within a 1-year follow-up period. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to evaluate the risk of an alternative feeding plan at discharge and length of stay.
Three-hundred and twenty-six patients met the inclusion criteria for this study. Seventy-two (22.09%) were discharged with a feeding tube and 70 (97.22%) of this subgroup were younger than 12 months at the time of surgery. Variables that increased the risk of being discharged with a feeding tube included patient age, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons–European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery score, procedure group, aspiration, and reflux. Speech-language pathology was the most frequently utilised consulting service for patients discharged with feeding tubes (90.28%) while other services were not frequently consulted. The median length of stay was increased from 4 to 10 days for patients who required an enteral feeding tube at discharge.
Multidisciplinary management protocol and interventions should be developed and standardised to improve feeding outcomes following congenital heart surgery.
Neo-Kantian philosophers see accountability as a key property of autonomy, or of social freedom more broadly. Autonomy, among those theorists, is, I contend, implicitly co-conceived with responsibility, producing a quasi-juridical conception of autonomy and a limiting notion of freedom. This article criticizes the connecting of freedom with accountability on a number of grounds. First, various conceptions of autonomy not only operate without a notion of accountability, but, in fact, would be impaired by an accountability requirement. Second, the neo-Kantians are unable to defend the freedom enhancing properties that are supposedly brought about by the giving of reasons for one’s beliefs and actions. Third, the project of accountability is indifferent to personal outlooks, not because it takes a holistic perspective, but because of its interest in social convergence.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have a relatively high prevalence of multimorbidity requiring treatment with medications. This study examines medication use and anticholinergic burden (ACB) among a cohort of older Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island people.
This cross-sectional study involving five Aboriginal communities (two in metropolitan Sydney and three on the mid-north coast of New South Wales) used a structured interview process to assess cognition, depression, and activities of daily living for a cohort of older adults (aged 60 years and over). Participants also reported on their health status, medical history, and prescription medications during the interview. ACB was calculated, and its association with adverse health outcomes including cognitive impairment, falls, hospitalization, and depressive symptoms were examined.
Most participants (95%) were taking at least one regular medication with polypharmacy (≥5 medications) observed in 43% of participants; 12.2% had a significant ACB (≥3) with antidepressants being a major contributor. Anticholinergic medication use was associated with cognitive impairment, recent hospitalization (past 12 months), and depressive symptoms. After controlling for age, sex, and comorbidity, only the presence of depressive symptoms remained significantly associated with the use of anticholinergic medication (odds ratio 2.86; 95% confidence interval 1.48–5.51).
Clinically significant ACB was common in older Aboriginal Australians and was largely attributable to inappropriate use of tricyclic antidepressants. Greater awareness of medication-related risk factors among both health care professionals and Aboriginal communities can play an important role in improving health and quality of life outcomes.
Understanding differences in social-emotional behavior can help identify atypical development. This study examined the differences in social-emotional development in children at increased risk of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis (infant siblings of children diagnosed with the disorder). Parents completed the Brief Infant-Toddler Social-Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) to determine its ability to flag children with later-diagnosed ASD in a high-risk (HR) sibling population. Parents of HR (n = 311) and low-risk (LR; no family history of ASD; n = 127) children completed the BITSEA when their children were 18 months old and all children underwent a diagnostic assessment for ASD at age 3 years. All six subscales of the BITSEA (Problems, Competence, ASD Problems, ASD Competence, Total ASD Score, and Red Flags) distinguished between those in the HR group who were diagnosed with ASD (n = 84) compared to non-ASD-diagnosed children (both HR-N and LR). One subscale (BITSEA Competence) differentiated between the HR children not diagnosed with ASD and the LR group. The results suggest that tracking early social-emotional development may have implications for all HR children, as they are at increased risk of ASD but also other developmental or mental health conditions.
Right cerebellar-left frontal (RC-LF) white matter integrity (WMI) has been associated with working memory. However, prior studies have employed measures of working memory that include processing speed and attention. We examined the relationships between the RC-LF WMI and processing speed, attention, and working memory to clarify the relationship of RC-LF WMI with a specific cognitive function. Right superior longitudinal fasciculus II (SLF II) WMI and visual attention were included as a negative control tract and task to demonstrate a double dissociation.
Adult survivors of childhood brain tumors [n = 29, age: M = 22 years (SD = 5), 45% female] and demographically matched controls were recruited (n = 29). Tests of auditory attention span, working memory, and visual attention served as cognitive measures. Participants completed a 3-T MRI diffusion-weighted imaging scan. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) served as WMI measures. Partial correlations between WMI and cognitive scores included controlling for type of treatment.
A correlational double dissociation was found. RC-LF WMI was associated with auditory attention (FA: r = .42, p = .03; RD: r = −.50, p = .01) and was not associated with visual attention (FA: r = −.11, p = .59; RD: r = −.11, p = .57). SLF II FA WMI was associated with visual attention (FA: r = .44, p = .02; RD: r = −.17, p = .40) and was not associated with auditory attention (FA: r = .24, p = .22; RD: r = −.10, p = .62).
The results show that RC-LF WMI is associated with auditory attention span rather than working memory per se and provides evidence for a specificity based on the correlational double dissociation.
The changing nature of work compels corresponding changes in organization selection systems. In this chapter, we advocate for competency modeling and propose nine competencies that are becoming more instrumental for success in the modern workforce. We then propose predictor constructs and methods to measure these competencies and new ways to leverage technology in their assessment. Lastly, we discuss four challenges that organizations will face when advancing our solutions: (a) achieving buy-in for competency modeling; (b) the continued recognition of a criterion problem; (c) monitoring applicant reactions; and (d) acknowledging social and ethical issues that may arise with these proposed changes.
Glacial retreat in response to warming climates in the arid Xinjiang region of northwestern China directly impacts downstream water resources available for local communities. We used high-resolution satellite imagery from 1969 to 2014 to delineate spatial changes in 54 active glaciers in the upper Kaidu River Basin in the Tian Shan as well as their past expanses during the Little Ice Age (LIA). We manually delineated their boundaries based on the interpretation of glacial, geomorphic and topographic features. From the total glacier surface area, we estimated glacier volume and mass. From 1969 to 2014, glacier area decreased by 10.1 ± 1.0 km2 (relative loss of 34.2 ± 3.5%) and mass by 1.025 ± 0.108 Gt (relative loss of 43 ± 4.6%). From the LIA maximum (est. 1586 CE) to 1969, relative losses were less (25.7 ± 4.3% area loss and 33.1 ± 5.7% mass loss). Our results indicate that glacier recession is accelerating over time and that the glaciers are currently losing over 1.5 times more relative area than elsewhere in the Tian Shan. Using linear and non-linear projections, we estimate that these glaciers may disappear between 2050 and 2150 CE if climatic warming continues at the same pace.
Schizophrenia psychopathology clusters around several symptom domains. One of these domains is negative symptomatology. We have defined the deficit syndrome as a disease entity characterized by the presence of primary enduring negative symptoms. A focus on primary negative symptoms demonstrates that deficit and nondeficit schizophrenia subgroups differ on clinical features, associated neuroimaging findings, neuropsychological and neurological measures, pattern of risk factors, and pharmacological response profiles. In the present article we focus on the importance of the distinction between primary and secondary negative symptoms for pathophysiology research. The development and mechanistic understanding of anti-negative symptom drugs may be informative regarding pathophysiology of primary negative symptoms. Although new antipsychotics are effective for secondary negative symptoms they have shown no efficacy for the deficit syndrome and new mechanisms of drug action appear to be required to address this aspect of the disease syndrome. The loss of precious human experiences and the association with poor long-term functional outcome justifies a focused and dedicated effort to discover the causes and treatments of this distinctive aspect of schizophrenia.
There is accumulating evidence regarding the beneficial effects of physical activity (PA) on cognitive processing speed in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, one overarching limitation of this research is that researchers have not recruited samples who have the actual problem of being studied (i.e., cognitive processing speed impairment). This study examined associations between device-measured PA and cognitive processing speed in a large sample of persons with MS overall and between those with and without cognitive processing speed impairment.
Three hundred eighty-five persons with MS underwent the oral Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) and wore an accelerometer for 7 days for PA measurement. We divided the overall sample into subsamples with (n = 140) and without (n = 245) cognitive processing speed impairment based on age, sex, and education-adjusted SDMT Z-scores.
After controlling for age and disability status, higher levels of device-measured PA were significantly associated with faster cognitive processing speed overall, and the association was significantly stronger among persons with MS who presented with cognitive processing speed impairment.
This examination provides initial cross-sectional support for informing the development of PA interventions as a possible approach for managing MS-related cognitive processing speed impairment. This highlights the importance of developing purposefully designed trials involving PA interventions for targeting cognitive processing speed as a primary end point among persons with MS with impaired cognitive processing speed.