Children with developmental language impairment (LI) are defined partly by the absence of other identifiable neurological diagnoses. Such children are generally considered to be neurologically normal, but no systematic studies of neurological function have been reported. We obtained detailed medical histories and conducted neurological examinations for 72 children aged 5 to 14 years with LI and 82 typically developing age-matched control children. All the children took a standardized test of language, and those who were at least 8 years old and were willing to have brain MRI scans (35 children with LI and 27 control children) had scans. Analysis of developmental milestones from the medical histories revealed that children with LI were not only significantly later in speaking, but also mildly but significantly delayed in motor milestones, particularly walking. On neurological examination, abnormalities were found in 70% of the children with LI and only 22% of the control children. The most common abnormalities in the LI group included obligatory synkinesis, fine motor impairments, and hyperreflexia. The children with LI with the most abnormal neurological findings had the lowest language scores. Finally, 12 of 35 children with LI had abnormalities on their MRI scan, while none of the 27 control children had abnormal scans. Abnormal findings included ventricular enlargement (in five), central volume loss (in three), and white matter abnormalities (in four). These findings suggest that developmental LI is not an isolated finding but is indicative of more widespread nervous system dysfunction. Children with LI may need more comprehensive intervention programs than language therapy alone, depending on their other areas of dysfunction. Early identification of such problems may allow for more successful remediation.