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Discomfort and device-related pressure injury (DRPI) caused by N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) are common. The use of prophylactic hydrocolloid dressings is one of the strategies that may improve comfort and reduce DRPI. In this study, we investigated the impact of these dressings on N95 respirator fit.
We performed a repeat quantitative fit testing through the Respiratory Protection Program on 134 healthcare workers (HCWs), who applied hydrocolloid dressings on the bridge of their nose under the N95 FFRs that they passed the initial fit test with, but reported discomfort with the FFR.
With the hydrocolloid dressings in place, the fit-test pass rate for the semirigid cup style (3M 1860) was 94% (108 of 115); for the the vertical flat-fold style (BYD), the pass rate was 85% (44 of 52); for the duckbill style (BSN medical ProShield and Halyard Fluidshield), the pass rate was 81% (87 of 108); and for the 3-panel flat-fold style (3M Aura) N95 FFRs, the pass rate was 100% (3 of 3). There was a statistically significant reduction in the overall fit factors for both the vertical flat-fold and duckbill type N95 respirators after the application of hydrocolloid dressings.
Hydrocolloid dressings are likely to disturb the mask seal for nonrigid-style N95 FFRs, particularly the vertical flat-fold style and the duckbill style N95 FFRs. Given the risk of mask seal disturbance of N95 respirators as shown in this study, we advocate that any HCW requiring the use of prophylactic dressings should undergo repeat quantitative fit testing with the dressing in place prior to using the dressing and mask in combination.
Aripiprazole is an anti-psychotic medication widely used for bipolar affective disorder and depression. It's primary mechanism of action is as a partial dopamine agonist. Aripiprazole's effect on dopamine signalling in the mesolimbic and mesocortical pathways may lead to impulse control disorders, as seen with other dopamine agonist medications. Aripiprazole is often chosen by prescribers because of its favourable side effect profile. There is a need to synthesise the available epidemiological literature on the potential association between aripiprazole use and impulse control disorders. This is needed to inform patients and prescribers of the best available evidence regarding this potential association. Our aim is to conduct a systematic review of the available non case-study evidence on the potential association between aripiprazole and impulse control disorders.
Databases were searched using MEDLINE, PsychINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Clinical Trials and Web of science. All studies from no earliest date to December 2020 were included; adult patients with a severe and enduring mental illness prescribed antipsychotic medication were included. Cinician diagnosis, structured interview diagnosis, and interviewer or self-completion questionnaires were used to measure prevalence. The study designs included were experimental designs, cohort study, cross-sectional survey and administrative databases. Exclusion criteria being those with traumatic brain injury, psychosis secondary to autoimmune, iatrogenic, chromosomal or metabolic disorder, those with Learning disability or Autistic Spectrum disorders. studies with majority of participants <18yrs. Those who were on other antipsychotic medications in addition to Aripiprazole, were excluded. To ensure quality assurance, we used ROBINS-I tool and GRADE assessment to measure the risk of bias.
240 records were retrieved, 187 after duplicates were removed. 8 full text articles were assessed for eligibility, of which 4 were included in the qualitative synthesis. 2 studies were analyses of spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting systems and 2 of health insurance claims databases. All 4 studies found aripiprazole to be associated with greater risk of impulse control disorders. The single study which compared directly with other antipsychotics had a much smaller effect size. Study heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis. All studies were at high risk of bias. The quality of evidence is very low.
The available evidence is consistent with the existing warnings regarding increased risk of impulse control disorders in patients prescribed aripiprazole. Clinicians may wish to monitor for this adverse drug reaction. Further research which can account for potential confounders, examines specific impulse control disorders and which is less susceptible to detection and ascertainment biases is required.
Patients with psychiatric disorders are exposed to high risk of COVID-19 and increased mortality. In this study, we set out to assess the clinical features and outcomes of patients with current psychiatric disorders exposed to COVID-19.
This multi-center prospective study was conducted in 22 psychiatric wards dedicated to COVID-19 inpatients between 28 February and 30 May 2020. The main outcomes were the number of patients transferred to somatic care units, the number of deaths, and the number of patients developing a confusional state. The risk factors of confusional state and transfer to somatic care units were assessed by a multivariate logistic model. The risk of death was analyzed by a univariate analysis.
In total, 350 patients were included in the study. Overall, 24 (7%) were transferred to medicine units, 7 (2%) died, and 51 (15%) patients presented a confusional state. Severe respiratory symptoms predicted the transfer to a medicine unit [odds ratio (OR) 17.1; confidence interval (CI) 4.9–59.3]. Older age, an organic mental disorder, a confusional state, and severe respiratory symptoms predicted mortality in univariate analysis. Age >55 (OR 4.9; CI 2.1–11.4), an affective disorder (OR 4.1; CI 1.6–10.9), and severe respiratory symptoms (OR 4.6; CI 2.2–9.7) predicted a higher risk, whereas smoking (OR 0.3; CI 0.1–0.9) predicted a lower risk of a confusional state.
COVID-19 patients with severe psychiatric disorders have multiple somatic comorbidities and have a risk of developing a confusional state. These data underline the need for extreme caution given the risks of COVID-19 in patients hospitalized for psychiatric disorders.
In this study, we use aerial photographs, satellite imagery and field observations to quantify changes in the area, terminus length, snowline elevation and surface elevation of eight glaciers in the Alexandra Fiord region, eastern Ellesmere Island, between 1959 and 2019. Comparisons to written and pictorial descriptions from the British Arctic Expedition extend the record of change in terminus position and surface elevation to 1875 for Twin Glacier. Glacier area at Alexandra Fiord decreased by a total of 15.77 ± 0.65 km2 (11.77 ± 0.49%) between 1959 and 2019, the mean end of summer snowline increased in elevation by 360 ± 84 m (8 ± 2 m a−1) between 1974 and 2019, and the glaciers thinned at an average rate of 0.60 ± 0.06 m a−1 between 2001 and 2018. Annual rates of terminus retreat were ~3–5 times higher over the period 1974–2019 compared to 1875–1974, and rates of thinning were ~2–3 times higher over 2001–18 compared to 1875–2001. Our results are consistent with rates of change determined for other glaciers of similar size on Ellesmere Island, and with accelerated rates of ice loss coincident with regional increases in air temperature of ~1.5°C since the early 1980s.
Among 353 healthcare personnel in a longitudinal cohort in 4 hospitals in Atlanta, Georgia (May–June 2020), 23 (6.5%) had severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies. Spending >50% of a typical shift at the bedside (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.2–10.5) and black race (OR, 8.4; 95% CI, 2.7–27.4) were associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity.
Liver disease in children is increasing in prevalence, placing a huge burden on healthcare systems and often requiring long-term management. Offering an integrative approach to the science and clinical practice of pediatric hepatology, this is the definitive reference text for improved diagnosis and treatment strategies. In the new edition of this authoritative text, chapters have been thoroughly revised in line with major advances in the field, such as recognizing the increased frequency of fatty liver disease, and how genetic testing has the potential to establish earlier diagnoses for a variety of diseases. Disorders covered include cholestasis, metabolic disorders and hepatitis, with their presentation across the spectrum of infancy, childhood and adolescence discussed. The indications and surgical aspects of liver transplant are explained and post-transplant care is described in detail. This is a valuable resource for pediatricians, hepatologists, gastroenterologists and all clinicians involved in the care of children with liver diseases.
Mass gatherings and high-density activities, such as sporting events, conventions, and theme parks, are consistently included among highest-risk activities given the increased potential for widespread coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission. A more balanced risk management approach is required because absolute suppression of risk is unrealistic in all facets of life. Contact tracing remains a limiting factor in achieving such a balance. The use of Bluetooth or pairing devices is proposed to address this challenge. This simple approach, when applied in a manner that satisfies privacy and trust concerns, would allow high-risk encounters to be quickly identified, namely those where participants have spent 15 minutes or more within 6 ft of each other per current guidelines. If an attendee later tests positive for COVID-19 and tracing is required, the event organizer can provide a limited list of potential close contacts rather than an exhaustive list of all attendees. Contact tracers can, therefore, limit efforts to this concise group rather than needing to contact thousands of people or conduct mass media communications. Such a system, if institutionalized, supports risk assurance and safety measures for businesses by demonstrating a commitment to staff, customer protection, and ensuring high-risk encounters are logged, reinforcing longer-term societal pandemic resilience.
Individuals with schizophrenia are more likely to smoke and less likely to quit smoking than those without schizophrenia. Because task persistence is lower in smokers with than without schizophrenia, it is possible that lower levels of task persistence may contribute to greater difficulties in quitting smoking observed among smokers with schizophrenia.
To develop a feasible and acceptable intervention for smokers with schizophrenia.
Participants (N = 24) attended eight weekly individual cognitive behavioral therapy sessions for tobacco use disorder with a focus on increasing task persistence and received 10 weeks of nicotine patch.
In total, 93.8% of participants rated the intervention as at least a 6 out of 7 regarding how ‘easy to understand’ it was and 81.3% rated the treatment as at least a 6 out of 7 regarding how helpful it was to them. A total of 62.5% attended at least six of the eight sessions and session attendance was positively related to nicotine dependence and age and negatively related to self-efficacy for quitting.
This intervention was feasible and acceptable to smokers with schizophrenia. Future research will examine questions appropriate for later stages of therapy development such as initial efficacy of the intervention and task persistence as a mediator of treatment outcome.