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The epidemic of tuberculosis has posed a serious burden in Qinghai province, it is necessary to clarify the epidemiological characteristics and spatial-temporal distribution of TB for future prevention and control measures. We used descriptive epidemiological methods and spatial statistical analysis including spatial correlation and spatial-temporal analysis in this study. Furthermore, we applied an exponential smoothing model for TB epidemiological trend forecasting. Of 43 859 TB cases, the sex ratio was 1.27:1 (M:F), and the average annual TB registered incidence was 70.00/100 000 of 2009–2019. More cases were reported in March and April, and the worst TB stricken regions were the prefectures of Golog and Yushu. High TB registered incidences were seen in males, farmers and herdsmen, Tibetans, or elderly people. 7132 cases were intractable, which were recurrent, drug resistant, or co-infected with other infections. Three likely cases clusters with significant high risk were found by spatial-temporal scan on data of 2009–2019. The exponential smoothing winters' additive model was selected as the best-fitting model to forecast monthly TB cases in the future. This research indicated that TB in Qinghai is still a serious threaten to the local residents' health. Multi-departmental collaboration and funds special for TB treatments and control are still needed, and the exponential smoothing model is promising which could be applied for forecasting of TB epidemic trend in this high-altitude province.
Leg weakness (LW) issues are a great concern for pig breeding industry. And it also has a serious impact on animal welfare. To dissect the genetic architecture of limb-and-hoof firmness in commercial pigs, a genome-wide association study was conducted on bone mineral density (BMD) in three sow populations, including Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire. The BMD data were obtained by ultrasound technology from 812 pigs (including Duroc 115, Landrace 243 and Yorkshire 454). In addition, all pigs were genotyped using genome-by-sequencing and a total of 224 162 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were obtained. After quality control, 218 141 SNPs were used for subsequent genome-wide association analysis. Nine significant associations were identified on chromosomes 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12 and 18 that passed Bonferroni correction threshold of 0.05/(total SNP numbers). The most significant locus that associated with BMD (P value = 1.92e−14) was detected at approximately 41.7 Mb on SSC6 (SSC stands for Sus scrofa chromosome). CUL7, PTK7, SRF, VEGFA, RHEB, PRKAR1A and TPO that are located near the lead SNP of significant loci were highlighted as functionally plausible candidate genes for sow limb-and-hoof firmness. Moreover, we also applied a new method to measure the BMD data of pigs by ultrasound technology. The results provide an insight into the genetic architecture of LW and can also help to improve animal welfare in pigs.
The relative effect of the atypical antipsychotic drugs and conventional agents on neurocognition in patients with early-stage schizophrenia has not been comprehensively determined.
The present study aimed to assess the cognitive effects of atypical and conventional antipsychotic drugs on neurocognition under naturalistic treatment conditions.
In a 12 months open-label, multicenter study, 698 patients with early-stage schizophrenia (< 5 years) were monotherapy with chlorpromazine, sulpiride, clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine or aripiprazole. Wechsler Memory Scale--Revised Visual Reproduction Test, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised Digit Symbol Test and Digit-span Task Test, Trail Making Tests Part A and Part B, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test were administered at baseline and 12 months follow-up evaluation. The primary outcome was change in a cognitive composite score after 12 months of treatment.
Compared with scores at baseline, the composite cognitive test scores and individual test scores had significant improvement for all seven treatment groups at 12-month follow-up evaluation (all p-values ≤ 0.013). However, olanzapine and quetiapine provided greater improvement than that provided by chlorpromazine and sulpiride in the composite score, processing speed and executive function (all p-values ≤ 0.045).
Both conventional and atypical antipsychotic medication long-term maintenance treatment can benefit congitive function in patients with early-stage schizophrenia, but olanzapine and quetiapine may be superior to chlorpromazine and sulpiride in improving some areas of neurocognitive function.
The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is a planned large radio interferometer designed to operate over a wide range of frequencies, and with an order of magnitude greater sensitivity and survey speed than any current radio telescope. The SKA will address many important topics in astronomy, ranging from planet formation to distant galaxies. However, in this work, we consider the perspective of the SKA as a facility for studying physics. We review four areas in which the SKA is expected to make major contributions to our understanding of fundamental physics: cosmic dawn and reionisation; gravity and gravitational radiation; cosmology and dark energy; and dark matter and astroparticle physics. These discussions demonstrate that the SKA will be a spectacular physics machine, which will provide many new breakthroughs and novel insights on matter, energy, and spacetime.
Multiple human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genotypes in China were first discovered in Yunnan Province before disseminating throughout the country. As the HIV-1 epidemic continues to expand in Yunnan, genetic characteristics and transmitted drug resistance (TDR) should be further investigated among the recently infected population. Among 2828 HIV-positive samples newly reported in the first quarter of 2014, 347 were identified as recent infections with BED-captured enzyme immunoassay (CEIA). Of them, 291 were successfully genotyped and identified as circulating recombinant form (CRF)08_BC (47.4%), unique recombinant forms (URFs) (18.2%), CRF01_AE (15.8%), CRF07_BC (14.4%), subtype C (2.7%), CRF55_01B (0.7%), subtype B (0.3%) and CRF64_BC (0.3%). CRF08_BC and CRF01_AE were the predominant genotypes among heterosexual and homosexual infections, respectively. CRF08_BC, URFs, CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC expanded with higher prevalence in central and eastern Yunnan. The recent common ancestor of CRF01_AE, CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC dated back to 1983.1, 1992.1 and 1989.5, respectively. The effective population sizes (EPS) for CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC increased exponentially during 1991–1999 and 1994–1999, respectively. The EPS for CRF08_BC underwent two exponential growth phases in 1994–1998 and 2001–2002. Lastly, TDR-associated mutations were identified in 1.8% of individuals. These findings not only enhance our understanding of HIV-1 evolution in Yunnan but also have implications for vaccine design and patient management strategies.
Protocols designed for the adipogenic differentiation of human and mouse cells are commonly used for inducing the adipogenesis of bovine stromal vascular cells. However, likely due to metabolic differences between ruminant and non-ruminant animals, these methods result in only few cells undergoing complete adipogenesis with minimal lipid droplet accumulation. Here, we discuss the development of an adipogenic differentiation protocol for bovine primary cells through a three-dimensional spheroid culture. Stromal vascular cells derived from bovine intramuscular fat were isolated and stored in liquid nitrogen before culturing. Cells were cultured in hanging drops for 3 days to allow for the formation of spherical structures. The spheroids were then transferred to cell culture plates with endothelial basal medium-2 for 3 days and in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM) supplemented with a standard adipogenic cocktail for 3 additional days, which were then allowed to fully differentiate for 3 days in DMEM supplemented with insulin. Compared with conventional two-dimensional culture, cells in a three-dimensional spheroid culture system had higher adipogenic gene expression and consequently contained more adipocytes with larger lipid droplets. In addition, endothelial induction of spheroids prior to adipogenic differentiation is essential for efficient induction of adipogenesis of bovine stromal vascular cells, mimicking in vivo adipose development. In summary, the newly developed three-dimensional spheroid culture method is an efficient way to induce adipogenic differentiation and study adipose development of cells derived from ruminant animals, which also can be used for studying the role of angiogenesis in adipose development.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
The effects of high-Z dopant on the laser-driven ablative Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI) are investigated by theoretical analysis and radiation hydrodynamics simulations. It is found that the oscillation amplitude of ablative RMI depends on the ablation velocity, the blow-off plasma velocity and the post-shock sound speed. Owing to enhancing the radiation at the plasma corona and increasing the radiation temperature at the ablation front, the high-Z dopant in plastic target can significantly increase the ablation velocity and the blow-off plasma velocity, leading to an increase in oscillation frequency and a reduction in oscillation amplitude of the ablative RMI. The high-Z dopant in plastic target is beneficial to reduce the seed of ablative Rayleigh–Taylor instability. These results are helpful for the design of direct drive inertial confinement fusion capsules.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and breast feeding on childhood overweight and obesity in a mainland Chinese population. The incidence of and factors associated with overweight and obesity were compared between children of mothers with (n=1068) and without (n=1756) GDM. The independent roles of the associated factors were examined by multiple logistic regression analysis. The incidence of overweight was higher (16.6 v. 12.6%, P=0.002) in the GDM group, but that of obesity was not different (10.7 v. 12.0%, P=0.315). At age 1–2 and 2–5 years, no difference in overweight (11.0 v. 12.0%, P=0.917, and 15.7 v. 14.6%, P=0.693, respectively) was found, while obesity (8.0 v. 13.6%, P=0.019, and 8.4 v. 13.4%, P=0.014, respectively) was less frequent in the GDM offspring. At age 5–10 years, increased overweight (22.2 v. 12.1%, P<0.001) and obesity (15.9 v. 9.0%, P=0.001) were found in the GDM group, which was associated with maternal obesity, being born large-for-gestational age, male gender and formula feeding. After adjusting for confounding factors, GDM remained an independent determinant of offspring overweight and obesity (aOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.61–3.22), suggesting that the effects of GDM were independent of breast feeding, as well as of maternal obesity and birth size.
The transmission of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is deeply influenced by the reservoir and hantavirus prevalence rate. In this study, a surveillance on human HFRS cases, relative rodent abundance, and hantavirus infection prevalence was conducted in Shaanxi province, China, during 1984–2012. A generalized linear model with Poisson-distributed residuals and a log link was used to quantify the relationship between reservoir, virus and HFRS cases. The result indicated that there was a significant association of HFRS incidence with relative rodent density and the prevalence rate. This research provides evidence that the changes of infection prevalence in the reservoir could lead directly to the emergence of a new epidemic. It was concluded that the measurement of a number of these variables could be used in disease surveillance to give useful advance warning of potential disease epidemics.
Changes of sucrose metabolism in the subtending leaf to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll at different fruiting branch nodes (FBN) were investigated. Two cotton cultivars, Kemian 1 and Sumian 15, were grown in the field at three planting dates in 2009 and 2011. Cotton planted on different dates but experiencing similar climatic factors flowered on the same date and had similar boll opening dates, but had different FBN. In the present study, boll weight and carbohydrate content were significantly affected by both flowering date (FD) and FBN. However, only cystolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (cy-FBPase) and sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) activities of the sucrose-metabolizing enzymes were influenced significantly by FBN, and the influence of FBN was lower with delayed FD. In general, effects of FBN on boll weight and sucrose metabolism in the subtending leaf were higher at the optimal FD (13 August) than those at later FD (9 September 2009 and 2 September 2011), and total fruiting branches were used to characterize cotton physiological age in the current study. Sucrose transport capacity (Tn) and SPS in the subtending leaf had significantly positive correlations with boll weight at 17–24 days post anthesis (DPA), a crucial period when boll weight was significantly affected. In addition, higher SPS activity was favourable for sucrose export and boll weight during boll development.
Transoral rigid laryngoscopy with videostroboscopy is the most practical method to visualise the vocal folds. The optimal topical anaesthesia regimen for transoral rigid laryngoscopy has not yet been established.
To compare patient comfort and compliance with various topical anaesthetics for transoral rigid laryngoscopy.
Each of 10 patients received a random topical administration of either 2 per cent lidocaine gel, 1 per cent tetracaine gel or 1 per cent tetracaine solution, 10 minutes before undergoing rigid laryngoscopy with videostroboscopy. During follow-up laryngoscopies, the agent with the lowest mean visual analogue scale score for discomfort was then used to study the timing of topical anaesthetic application: the agent was given to the patient 5, 10 or 15 minutes before laryngoscopy (with the timing randomly selected).
Compared with lidocaine gel or tetracaine gel, laryngoscopy with topical tetracaine solution was more comfortable. There was a statistically significant difference in discomfort score between the 5 and 10 minute application groups, but not between the 10 and 15 minute groups.
The relationship between recurrent major depression (MD) in women and suicidality is complex. We investigated the extent to which patients who suffered with various forms of suicidal symptomatology can be distinguished from those subjects without such symptoms.
We examined the clinical features of the worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent DSM-IV MD between the ages of 30 and 60 years from across China. Student's t tests, and logistic and multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between suicidality and other clinical features of MD.
Suicidal symptomatology is significantly associated with a more severe form of MD, as indexed by both the number of episodes and number of MD symptoms. Patients reporting suicidal thoughts, plans or attempts experienced a significantly greater number of stressful life events. The depressive symptom most strongly associated with lifetime suicide attempt was feelings of worthlessness (odds ratio 4.25, 95% confidence interval 2.9–6.3). Excessive guilt, diminished concentration and impaired decision-making were also significantly associated with a suicide attempt.
This study contributes to the existing literature on risk factors for suicidal symptomatology in depressed women. Identifying specific depressive symptoms and co-morbid psychiatric disorders may help improve the clinical assessment of suicide risk in depressed patients. These findings could be helpful in identifying those who need more intense treatment strategies in order to prevent suicide.
Energetic divergent proton beams can be generated in the interaction of ultra-intense laser pulses with solid-density foil targets via target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). In this paper, a scheme using a capillary to reduce the proton beam divergence is proposed. By two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, it is shown that strong transverse electric and magnetic fields rapidly grow at the inner surface of the capillary when the laser-driven hot electrons propagate through the target and into the capillary. The spontaneous magnetic field collimates the electron flow, and the ions dragged from the capillary wall by hot electrons neutralize the negative charge and thus restrain the transverse extension of the sheath field set up by electrons. The proton beam divergence, which is mainly determined by the accelerating sheath field, is therefore reduced by the transverse limitation of the sheath field in the capillary.
EuroRotaNet, a laboratory network, was established in order to determine the diversity of co-circulating rotavirus strains in Europe over three or more rotavirus seasons from 2006/2007 and currently includes 16 countries. This report highlights the tremendous diversity of rotavirus strains co-circulating in the European population during three years of surveillance since 2006/2007 and points to the possible origins of these strains including genetic reassortment and interspecies transmission. Furthermore, the ability of the network to identify strains circulating with an incidence of ⩾1% allowed the identification of possible emerging strains such as G8 and G12 since the beginning of the study; analysis of recent data indicates their increased incidence. The introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination in at least two of the participating countries, and partial vaccine coverage in some others may provide data on diversity driven by vaccine introduction and possible strain replacement in Europe.
Single-walled carbon nanotubes can be used as electron sources in the
process of field emission, and have great potential for practical
application of the field emission display (FED) panels with large screen
size. We fabricated a FED using the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)
as the cathode by the screen-printing process. Test showed that the SWNTs
emitters exhibit excellent macroscopic emission properties. It has low
turn-on voltage (2.7 V/μm) and high brightness, with a high current
density of good uniformity and stability. It was observed that the field
emission qualitatively follows the conventional Fowler–Nordheim (F–N)
theory, and aging treatment played an important role in improving the image
uniformity and stability. Compared to other complicated processes, the
simple fabrication using screen-printing process seems to be advantageous
for practical application.
To date, there has been no large-scale survey of geriatric depression (GD) involving both rural and urban areas in China using standardized assessment tools and diagnostic criteria. This study aimed to determine the 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates of GD and sociodemographic correlates in urban and rural regions of Beijing, China.
A total of 1601 elderly patients (aged ⩾60 years) were randomly selected and interviewed in Beijing using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 1.0). Basic sociodemographic and clinical data were also collected during the interviews.
The overall 12-month prevalence of GD was 4.33%, and the 12-month prevalence rates for men and women were 2.65% and 5.83% respectively. The overall lifetime prevalence of GD was 7.83%, and lifetime prevalence rates for men and women were 4.65% and 10.66% respectively. Female sex, lower educational level, monthly income, rural abode, and the presence of one or more major medical conditions were associated with increased risk of GD. Of the GD subjects interviewed, 25.2% were receiving some type of treatment, with only 4.7% preferring to seek treatment from mental health professionals.
Although still relatively low by international standards, there is an increasing trend in the prevalence of GD in China. The low percentage of subjects treated for GD is a major public health concern that should be addressed urgently.
The activities in scientific research related to Commission 19 are mostly developed in the different institutions that have sent their reports here enclosed, in the different meetings that have been organized in related themes, and in the WGs of the Division 1. An important additional activity has been developed in the frame of precession and nutation. This research has been initiated by the Descartes Prize received by the Nutation Consortium in 2003.
Multilayer oxides of SrNb0.1Ti0.9O3/La0.8Sr0.2MnO3/SrTiO3 have been grown by computer-controlled laser molecular beam epitaxy and characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Electron microdiffractions and high-resolution imaging reveal that the as-prepared thin film of La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 with thickness of 200 nm is epitaxially grown on the SrTiO3(001) substrate and the SrNb0.1Ti0.9O3 with thickness of 250 nm epitaxially on the as-received La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 film. The microstructures in the La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 film are clarified in terms of the oriented microdomains. In contrast, microstructures in SNTO are featured by the formation of superstructures due to charge ordering. Crystallographic relationships of these domains are discussed on the basis of an orthorhombic cell and rationalized by theoretical calculations based on a geometrical model.