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Neuroticism has societal, mental and physical health relevance, with an etiology involving genetic predisposition, psychological influence, and their interaction.
To understand whether the association between polygenic risk score for neuroticism (PRS-N) and neuroticism is moderated by affective well-being.
Data were derived from TwinssCan, a general population twin cohort (age range=15-35 years, 478 monozygotic twins). Self-report questionnaires were used to measure well-being and neuroticism. PRS-N was trained from the Genetics of Personality Consortium (GPC) and United Kingdom Biobank (UKB). Multilevel mixed-effects models were used to test baseline and changes in well-being and neuroticism.
Baseline wellbeing and neuroticism were associated (β=-1.35, p<0.001). PRSs-N were associated with baseline neuroticism (lowest p-value: 0.008 in GPC, 0.01 in UKB). In interaction models (PRS x wellbeing), GPC PRS-N (β=0.38, p=0.04) and UKB PRS-N (β=0.81, p<0.001) had significant interactions.
PRSs-N were associated with changes in neuroticism (lowest p-value: 0.03 in GPC, 0.3 in UKB). Furthermore, changes in wellbeing and neuroticism were associated (β =-0.66, p<0.001). In interaction models (PRS x change in wellbeing), only UKB PRS-N had a significant interaction (β=0.80, p<0.001).
Interaction between polygenic risk, wellbeing and neuroticism, were observed regarding baselines measures and change over time. Depending on the analysis step, the direction of the effect changed.
Prior evidence suggests that men and women might be differentially susceptible to distinct types of childhood adversity (CA), but research on gender-specific associations between CA subtypes and psychiatric symptoms is limited.
To test the gender-specific associations of CA subtypes and psychiatric symptoms in the general population.
Data from 791 twins and siblings from the TwinssCan project were used. Psychopathology and CA exposure were assessed using the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), respectively. The associations between the total CTQ scores and SCL-90 scores (i.e. total SCL-90, psychoticism, paranoid ideation, anxiety, depression, somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, and phobic anxiety) were tested in men and women separately. The associations between the five CA subtypes (i.e. physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect) and total SCL-90 were tested in a mutually adjusted model. As exploratory analyses, the associations between all CA subtypes and the nine SCL-90 subdomain scores were similarly tested. The regression coefficients between men and women were compared using Chow’s test. All models were adjusted for age and family structure.
Total CTQ was significantly associated with total SCL-90 in men (B = 0.013, SE = 0.003, P < .001) and women (B = 0.011, SE = 0.002, P < .001). The associations with the nine symptom domains were also significant in both genders (P < .001). No significant gender differences in the regression coefficients of total CTQ were detected. The analyses of CA subtypes showed a significant association between emotional abuse and total SCL-90 in women (B = 0.173, SE = 0.030, P < .001) and men (B = 0.080, SE = 0.035, P = .023), but the association was significantly stronger in women (ꭓ2(1) = 4.10, P = .043). The association of sexual abuse and total SCL-90 was only significant in women (B = 0.217, SE = 0.053, P < .001). The associations of emotional neglect (B = 0.061, SE = 0.027, P = .026) and physical neglect (B = 0.167, SE = 0.043, P < .001) with total SCL-90 were only significant in men. The explorative analyses of SCL-90 subdomains revealed significant associations of emotional abuse with all nine symptom domains and of sexual abuse with seven symptom domains in women. Significant associations of physical neglect with six symptom domains and of emotional neglect with depression were also detected in men. No other significant associations between CT subtypes and total SCL-90 or symptom domain scores were observed in men and women.
CA exposure was associated with diverse psychopathology similarly in both genders. However, women are more sensitive to abuse, but men are more sensitive to neglect. Gender-specific influences of CA subtypes on psychopathology should be considered in future studies.
The prevalence of psychotic experiences (PEs) is higher in low-and-middle-income-countries (LAMIC) than in high-income countries (HIC). Here, we examine whether this effect is explicable by measurement bias.
A community sample from 13 countries (N = 7141) was used to examine the measurement invariance (MI) of a frequently used self-report measure of PEs, the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE), in LAMIC (n = 2472) and HIC (n = 4669). The CAPE measures positive (e.g. hallucinations), negative (e.g. avolition) and depressive symptoms. MI analyses were conducted with multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses.
MI analyses showed similarities in the structure and understanding of the CAPE factors between LAMIC and HIC. Partial scalar invariance was found, allowing for latent score comparisons. Residual invariance was not found, indicating that sum score comparisons are biased. A comparison of latent scores before and after MI adjustment showed both overestimation (e.g. avolition, d = 0.03 into d = −0.42) and underestimation (e.g. magical thinking, d = −0.03 into d = 0.33) of PE in LAMIC relative to HIC. After adjusting the CAPE for MI, participants from LAMIC reported significantly higher levels on most CAPE factors but a significantly lower level of avolition.
Previous studies using sum scores to compare differences across countries are likely to be biased. The direction of the bias involves both over- and underestimation of PEs in LAMIC compared to HIC. Nevertheless, the study confirms the basic finding that PEs are more frequent in LAMIC than in HIC.
With increasing numbers of previous traumatic experiences, a rising risk of psychiatric morbidity and in particular post-traumatic stress disorder following an acute trauma has been reported. This dose-effect relationship was called the building block effect. Most results are derived from studies on riot and prosecution victims. We investigated victims of a natural disaster with respect to the building block effect due to prior traumatization.
We assessed tourists who had been affected by the Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004 using the Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory. Outcome variables were related to the numbers or prior civil trauma according to the trauma history scale of the PDS.
We found a building block effect for the development of anxiety (P = 0.018) and by trend with PTSD symptoms (P = 0.06), but not with depressive symptoms (P = 0.436). Prior traumatization and the actual Tsunami exposure significantly explained variance of personal posttraumatic growth (P = 0.013). Prior interpersonal traumata emerged as a strong risk factor for the development of posttraumatic psychiatric morbidity.
We suggest that an increasing number of trauma is closely associated with anxiety but not with depressive disorders in the aftermath of natural disasters. For clinical practice, it is necessary to ask victims of natural disasters about prior traumatization, in particular about prior interpersonal trauma.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The aim of the current study was to replicate findings in adults indicating that higher sensitivity to stressful events is predictive of both onset and persistence of psychopathological symptoms in a sample of adolescents and young adults. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that sensitivity to mild stressors in particular is predictive of the developmental course of psychopathology.
We analyzed experience sampling and questionnaire data collected at baseline and one-year follow-up of 445 adolescent and young adult twins and non-twin siblings (age range: 15–34). Linear multilevel regression was used for the replication analyses. To test if affective sensitivity to mild stressors in particular was associated with follow-up symptoms, we used a categorical approach adding variables on affective sensitivity to mild, moderate and severe daily stressors to the model.
Linear analyses showed that emotional stress reactivity was not associated with onset (ß = .02; P = .56) or persistence (ß = -.01; P = .78) of symptoms. There was a significant effect of baseline symptom score (ß = .53; P < .001) and average negative affect (NA: ß = .19; P < .001) on follow-up symptoms. Using the categorical approach, we found that affective sensitivity to mild (ß = .25; P < .001), but not moderate (ß = -.03; P = .65) or severe (ß = -.06; P = .42), stressors was associated with symptom persistence one year later.
We were unable to replicate previous findings relating stress sensitivity linearly to symptom onset or persistence in a younger sample. Whereas sensitivity to more severe stressors may reflect adaptive coping, high sensitivity to the mildest of daily stressors may indicate an increased risk for psychopathology.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
Today, image denoising by thresholding of wavelet coefficients is a commonly used tool for 2D image enhancement. Since the data product of spectroscopic imaging surveys has two spatial dimensions and one spectral dimension, the techniques for denoising have to be adapted to this change in dimensionality. In this paper we will review the basic method of denoising data by thresholding wavelet coefficients and implement a 2D–1D wavelet decomposition to obtain an efficient way of denoising spectroscopic data cubes. We conduct different simulations to evaluate the usefulness of the algorithm as part of a source finding pipeline.
Mesostructured siliceous cellular foams (mesocellular foams, MCFs) with homogeneous ultra-large mesopores are described. MCFs consist of uniform spherical cells 21–36 nm in diameter and possess surface areas up to 900 m2/g. Uniform windows, 7–18 nm in diameter, interconnect the cells to form a continuous 3-D pore system, which makes the MCFs attractive candidates for supports for catalysis and in separation and immobilization involving large molecules. They may be of interest in low-dielectric applications. The size of the cells can be controlled by the concentration of the added organic cosolvent. Adding small amounts of NH4F selectively enlarges the windows. We propose that the MCFs are templated by oil-inwater microemulsion droplets. The large-pore MCF materials resemble aerogels, with the benefit of a facilitated synthesis procedure in combination with well-defined pores and wall structure.
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