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Patients admitted to the hospital may unknowingly carry severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and hospitals have implemented SARS-CoV-2 admission screening. However, because SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays may remain positive for months after infection, positive results may represent active or past infection. We determined the prevalence and infectiousness of patients who were admitted for reasons unrelated to COVID-19 but tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on admission screening.
We conducted an observational study at the University of Iowa Hospitals & Clinics from July 7 to October 25, 2020. All patients admitted without suspicion of COVID-19 were included, and medical records of those with a positive admission screening test were reviewed. Infectiousness was determined using patient history, PCR cycle threshold (Ct) value, and serology.
In total, 5,913 patients were screened and admitted for reasons unrelated to COVID-19. Of these, 101 had positive admission RT-PCR results; 36 of these patients were excluded because they had respiratory signs/symptoms on admission on chart review. Also, 65 patients (1.1%) did not have respiratory symptoms. Finally, 55 patients had Ct values available and were included in this analysis. The median age of the final cohort was 56 years and 51% were male. Our assessment revealed that 23 patients (42%) were likely infectious. The median duration of in-hospital isolation was 5 days for those likely infectious and 2 days for those deemed noninfectious.
SARS-CoV-2 was infrequent among patients admitted for reasons unrelated to COVID-19. An assessment of the likelihood of infectiousness using clinical history, RT-PCR Ct values, and serology may help in making the determination to discontinue isolation and conserve resources.
Creativity appears to be an important part of cognitive capacities and problem solving. Creativity is one’s ability to generate ideas that are novel, surprising, and compelling (Kaufman and Sternberg, 2010). This chapter will focus on the creative-cognitive approach, which seeks to further understand how human minds produce creative ideas.
Rabies is endemic in Bangladesh. To identify risk factors, a case-control study was conducted based on hospital-reported rabid animal bite (RAB) cases in domestic ruminants, 2009 − 2018. RAB cases (n = 449) and three controls per case were selected. Dogs (87.8%) and jackals (12.2%) were most often identified as biting animals. In the final multivariable model, the risk of being a RAB case was significantly higher in cattle aged >0.5–2 years (odds ratio (OR) 2.89; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.56–5.37), >2–5 years (OR 3.63; 95% CI: 1.97–6.67) and >5 years (OR 6.42; 95% CI: 3.39–12.17) compared to those aged <0.5 years. Crossbred cattle were at higher risk of being a RAB case (OR 5.48; 95% CI: 3.56–8.42) than indigenous. Similarly, female cattle were more likely to be a RAB case (OR 1.26; 95% CI: 1.15–2.29) than males. Cattle in rural areas (OR 39.48; 95% CI: 6.14–254.00) were at a much higher risk of being RAB cases than those in urban areas. Female, crossbred and older cattle, especially in rural areas should either be managed indoors during the dog breeding season (September and October) or vaccinated. A national rabies elimination program should prioritise rural dogs for mass vaccination. Jackals should also be immunised using oral bait vaccines. Prevention of rabies in rural dogs and jackals would also reduce rabies incidence in humans.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
To explore, from the perspectives of adolescents and caregivers, and using qualitative methods, influences on adolescent diet and physical activity in rural Gambia.
Six focus group discussions (FGD) with adolescents and caregivers were conducted. Thematic analysis was employed across the data set.
Rural region of The Gambia, West Africa.
Participants were selected using purposive sampling. Four FGD, conducted with forty adolescents, comprised: girls aged 10–12 years; boys aged 10–12 years; girls aged 15–17 years, boys aged 15–17 years. Twenty caregivers also participated in two FGD (mothers and fathers).
All participants expressed an understanding of the association between salt and hypertension, sugary foods and diabetes, and dental health. Adolescents and caregivers suggested that adolescent nutrition and health were shaped by economic, social and cultural factors and the local environment. Adolescent diet was thought to be influenced by: affordability, seasonality and the receipt of remittances; gender norms, including differences in opportunities afforded to girls, and mother-led decision-making; cultural ceremonies and school holidays. Adolescent physical activity included walking or cycling to school, playing football and farming. Participants felt adolescent engagement in physical activity was influenced by gender, seasonality, cultural ceremonies and, to some extent, the availability of digital media.
These novel insights into local understanding should be considered when formulating future interventions. Interventions need to address these interrelated factors, including misconceptions regarding diet and physical activity that may be harmful to health.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has greatly impacted health-care systems worldwide, leading to an unprecedented rise in demand for health-care resources. In anticipation of an acute strain on established medical facilities in Dallas, Texas, federal officials worked in conjunction with local medical personnel to convert a convention center into a Federal Medical Station capable of caring for patients affected by COVID-19. A 200,000 square foot event space was designated as a direct patient care area, with surrounding spaces repurposed to house ancillary services. Given the highly transmissible nature of the novel coronavirus, the donning and doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) was of particular importance for personnel staffing the facility. Furthermore, nationwide shortages in the availability of PPE necessitated the reuse of certain protective materials. This article seeks to delineate the procedures implemented regarding PPE in the setting of a COVID-19 disaster response shelter, including workspace flow, donning and doffing procedures, PPE conservation, and exposure event protocols.
Our research group demonstrated that vitamin A restriction affected meat quality of Angus cross and Simmental steers. Therefore, the aim of this study is to highlight the genotype variations in response to dietary vitamin A levels. Commercial Angus and Simmental steers (n = 32 per breed; initial BW = 337.2 ± 5.9 kg; ~8 months of age) were fed a low-vitamin A (LVA) (1017 IU/kg DM) backgrounding diet for 95 days to reduce hepatic vitamin A stores. During finishing, steers were randomly assigned to treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of genotype × dietary vitamin A concentration. The LVA treatment was a finishing diet with no supplemental vitamin A (723 IU vitamin A/kg DM); the control (CON) was the LVA diet plus supplementation with 2200 IU vitamin A/kg DM. Blood samples were collected at three time points throughout the study to analyze serum retinol concentration. At the completion of finishing, steers were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. Meat characteristics assessed were intramuscular fat concentration, color, Warner-Bratzler shear force, cook loss and pH. Camera image analysis was used for determination of marbling, 12th rib back fat and longissimus muscle area (LMA). The LVA steers had lower (P < 0.001) serum retinol concentration than CON steers. The LVA treatment resulted in greater (P = 0.03) average daily gain than the CON treatment, 1.52 and 1.44 ± 0.03 kg/day, respectively; however, there was no effect of treatment on final BW, DM intake or feed efficiency. Cooking loss and yield grade were greater and LMA was smaller in LVA steers (P < 0.05). There was an interaction between breed and treatment for marbling score (P = 0.01) and percentage of carcasses grading United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Prime (P = 0.02). For Angus steers, LVA treatment resulted in a 16% greater marbling score than CON (683 and 570 ± 40, respectively) and 27% of LVA Angus steers graded USDA Prime compared with 0% for CON. Conversely, there was no difference in marbling score or USDA Quality Grades between LVA and CON for Simmental steers. In conclusion, feeding a LVA diet during finishing increased marbling in Angus but not in Simmental steers. Reducing the vitamin A level of finishing diets fed to cattle with a high propensity to marble, such as Angus, has the potential to increase economically important traits such as marbling and quality grade without negatively impacting gain : feed or yield grade.
People with severe mental illness (SMI) have numerous risk factors that may predispose them to food insecurity (FI); however, the prevalence of FI and its effects on health are under-researched in this population. The present study aimed to describe the prevalence of FI and its relationship to lifestyle factors in people with SMI. This cross-sectional study recruited people with SMI receiving long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic medication from community services at three sites in Sydney, Australia. Assessments were completed on physical health and lifestyle factors. χ2 Tests, independent-samples t tests and binary logistic regression analyses were calculated to examine relationships between lifestyle factors and FI. In total, 233 people completed the assessments: 154 were males (66 %), mean age 44·8 (sd 12·7) years, and the majority (70 %) had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. FI was present in 104 participants (45 %). People with FI were less likely to consume fruits (OR 0·42, 95 % CI 0·24, 0·74, P = 0·003), vegetables (OR 0·39, 95 % CI 0·22, 0·69, P = 0·001) and protein-based foods (OR 0·45, 95 % CI 0·25, 0·83, P = 0·011) at least once daily, engaged in less moderate to vigorous physical activity (min) (OR 0·997, 95 % CI 0·993, 1·000, P = 0·044), and were more likely to smoke (OR 1·89, 95 % CI 1·08, 3·32, P = 0·026). FI is highly prevalent among people with SMI receiving LAI antipsychotic medications. Food-insecure people with SMI engage in less healthy lifestyle behaviours, increasing the risk of future non-communicable disease.
Nutrition interventions are critical for weight management and cardiometabolic risk reduction in people experiencing severe mental illness (SMI). As mental health teams evolve to incorporate nutrition interventions, evidence needs to guide clinical practice.
A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess whether nutrition interventions improve:
– anthropometric and biochemical measures,
– nutritional intake of people experiencing SMI.
To evaluate the effectiveness of a dietician-led nutrition intervention, as part of a broader lifestyle intervention, in the early stages of antipsychotic prescription.
An electronic database search was conducted to identify all trials with nutritional components. Included trials were pooled for meta-analysis. Meta-regression analyses were run on potential anthropometric moderators. Weekly individualised dietetic consultations plus group cooking classes were then offered to clients attending a Community Early Psychosis Programme, who had recently commenced antipsychotics for a 12-week period.
From pooled trials, nutrition interventions resulted in significant weight loss (19 studies, g = –0.39, P < 0.001), reduced BMI (17 studies, g = –0.40, P < 0.001), decreased waist circumference (10 studies, g = –0.27, P < 0.001) and lower blood glucose levels (5 studies, g = –0.37, P = 0.02). Dietician-led interventions (g = –0.90) and trials focussing on preventing weight gain (g = –0.61) were the most effective. The 12-week nutrition intervention resulted in a 47% reduction in discretionary (junk) food intake (P < 0.001) and reductions in daily energy (–24%, P < 0.001) and sodium intakes (–26%, P < 0.001), while improving diet quality (P < 0.05).
Evidence supports the inclusion of nutrition interventions as part of standard care for preventing weight gain and metabolic deterioration among people with SMI.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
This study evaluated the quality of YouTube content focusing on common paediatric otolaryngology procedures, as this content can influence the opinions and medical decisions of patients.
A total of 120 YouTube videos were compiled to review using the terms ‘adenoid removal’, ‘adenoidectomy’, ‘ear tubes’, ‘tympanostomy’, ‘tonsil removal’ and ‘tonsillectomy’. The Discern criteria was used to rate the quality of health information presented in each video.
The mean bias Discern score was 3.18 and the mean overall Discern score was 2.39. Videos including US board certified physicians were rated significantly higher (p < 0.001) than videos without (bias Discern score = 3.00 vs 2.38; overall Discern score = 3.79 vs 1.55). The videos had been viewed a total of 176 769 549 times.
Unbiased, high quality videos on YouTube are lacking. As patients may rely on this information when making medical decisions, it is important that practitioners continually evaluate and improve this video content. Otolaryngologists should be prepared to discuss YouTube content with patients.
When the financial positions of pension funds worsen, regulations prescribe that pension funds reduce the gap between their assets (invested contributions) and their liabilities (accumulated pension promises). This paper quantifies the business cycle effects and distributional implications of various types of restoration policies. We extend a canonical New-Keynesian model with a tractable demographic structure and, as a novelty, a flexible pension fund framework. Fund participants accumulate inflation-indexed or non-indexed benefits and funding adequacy is restored by revaluing previously accumulated pension wealth (Defined Contribution (DC)) or changing the pension fund contribution rate on labor income (Defined Benefit (DB)). Economies with DC pension funds respond similarly to adverse capital quality shocks as economies without pension funds. DB pension funds, however, distort labor supply decisions and exacerbate economic fluctuations. While DB pension funds achieve intergenerational risk-sharing, welfare analyses indicate that the negative effects of the induced distortions are sizeable.
The disproportionate burden of prevalent, persistent pathogens among disadvantaged groups may contribute to socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in long-term health. We assessed if the social patterning of pathogen burden changed over 16 years in a U.S.-representative sample. Data came from 17 660 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants. Pathogen burden was quantified by summing the number of positive serologies for cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus-1, HSV-2, human papillomavirus and Toxoplasma gondii and dividing by the number of pathogens tested, giving a percent-seropositive for each participant. We examined sex- and age-adjusted mean pathogen burdens from 1999–2014, stratified by race/ethnicity and SES (poverty-to-income ratio (PIR); educational attainment). Those with a PIR < 1.3 had a mean pathogen burden 1.4–1.8 times those with a PIR > 3.5, with no change over time. Educational disparities were even greater and showed some evidence of increasing over time, with the mean pathogen burden among those with less than a high school education approximately twice that of those who completed more than high school. Non-Hispanic Black, Mexican American and other Hispanic participants had a mean pathogen burden 1.3–1.9 times non-Hispanic Whites. We demonstrate that socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in pathogen burden have persisted across 16 years, with little evidence that the gap is closing.
This chapter examines creativity from the perspective of the creative cognition approach. That approach views the generation of novel and useful ideas as being the result of applying basic cognitive processes to existing knowledge structures. Processes considered include the retrieval of information at various levels of abstraction, the priming of information from recent exposure to ideas, conceptual combination, and analogical thought. The chapter traces work from several modes of inquiry, including laboratory studies using specialist and nonspecialist samples, anecdotal/historical accounts, and in vivo studies of high-level creative professionals to converge on a cognitive perspective on creativity.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: These studies seek to evaluate hormonal regulation of luminal breast cancer lipid metabolism and to identify targetable progesterone-mediated changes in lipid biology that contribute to therapeutic resistance in breast cancer. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Established and patient-derived luminal breast cancer cell lines, which express ER and PR, were used for this study. RNA transcript and protein expression levels were evaluated by qRT-PCR and immunoblot, respectively. Broad scale lipidomics of progesterone-treated cells was conducted via ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) through the UCD Skaggs School of Pharmacy Mass Spectrometry Core. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Data mining of previously published microarray data of CK5+ and CK5− syngeneic cancer sublines revealed that CK5+ cells have increased expression of lipid processing genes, including LPL and PPARG. As progestin treatment induces a subpopulation of cells to turn on CK5 expression in luminal breast cancers, UHPLC-MS-based lipidomics analysis will expose whether modulation of the lipid landscape occurs in all cells with progesterone treatment, or whether this phenomenon is heightened specifically in CK5+ cells. I also expect that ER+ breast cancers with progestin induced-altered lipid content, such as lipid droplet formation, will evade therapy-induced death. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: There are numerous approved and developmental therapeutics targeting lipid biology. By determining if progestins alter lipid metabolic genes specifically in CK5+ CSCs, which are endocrine resistant, strategies may be devised to target these resistant cells using combination therapy in conjunction with existing therapies to prevent tumor recurrence.
Severe mental illness (SMI) is thought to be associated with lower diet quality and adverse eating behaviours contributing towards physical health disparities. A rigorous review of the studies looking at dietary intake in psychotic disorders and bipolar disorder is lacking.
To conduct a systematic, comprehensive evaluation of the published research on dietary intake in psychotic disorders and bipolar disorder.
Six electronic databases were searched for studies reporting on dietary intakes in psychotic disorders and bipolar disorder. Dietary-assessment methods, and dietary intakes, were systematically reviewed. Where possible, data was pooled for meta-analysis and compared with healthy controls.
In total, 58 eligible studies were identified. People with SMI were found to have significantly higher dietary energy (mean difference 1332 kJ, 95% CI 487–2178 kJ/day, P = 0.002, g = 0.463) and sodium (mean difference 322 mg, 95% CI 174–490 mg, P < 0.001, g = 0.414) intake compared with controls. Qualitative synthesis suggested that higher energy and sodium intakes were associated with poorer diet quality and eating patterns.
These dietary components should be key targets for preventative interventions to improve weight and other physical health outcomes in people with SMI.
Declaration of interest
S.B.T. and E.T. have clinical dietitian appointments within the South Eastern Sydney Local Health District and do not receive any further funding.
We evaluated the performance of three serological tests – an immunoglobulin G indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA), a Rose Bengal test and a slow agglutination test (SAT) – for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in Bangladesh. Cattle sera (n = 1360) sourced from Mymensingh district (MD) and a Government owned dairy farm (GF) were tested in parallel. We used a Bayesian latent class model that adjusted for the conditional dependence among the three tests and assumed constant diagnostic accuracy of the three tests in both populations. The sensitivity and specificity of the three tests varied from 84.6% to 93.7%, respectively. The true prevalences of bovine brucellosis in MD and the GF were 0.6% and 20.4%, respectively. Parallel interpretation of iELISA and SAT yielded the highest negative predictive values: 99.9% in MD and 99.6% in the GF; whereas serial interpretation of both iELISA and SAT produced the highest positive predictive value (PPV): 99.9% in the GF and also high PPV (98.9%) in MD. We recommend the use of both iELISA and SAT together and serial interpretation for culling and parallel interpretation for import decisions. Removal of brucellosis positive cattle will contribute to the control of brucellosis as a public health risk in Bangladesh.
Good education requires student experiences that deliver lessons about practice as well as theory and that encourage students to work for the public good—especially in the operation of democratic institutions (Dewey 1923; Dewy 1938). We report on an evaluation of the pedagogical value of a research project involving 23 colleges and universities across the country. Faculty trained and supervised students who observed polling places in the 2016 General Election. Our findings indicate that this was a valuable learning experience in both the short and long terms. Students found their experiences to be valuable and reported learning generally and specifically related to course material. Postelection, they also felt more knowledgeable about election science topics, voting behavior, and research methods. Students reported interest in participating in similar research in the future, would recommend other students to do so, and expressed interest in more learning and research about the topics central to their experience. Our results suggest that participants appreciated the importance of elections and their study. Collectively, the participating students are engaged and efficacious—essential qualities of citizens in a democracy.