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Introduction: Women experiencing early pregnancy loss or threatened loss frequently seek care in emergency departments (ED) or early pregnancy clinics (EPC). The dearth of existing qualitative studies has left understudied questions about how these women perceive their healthcare and which strategies best meet their supportive care needs, particularly in the Canadian context. The objective of this study was to deepen our understanding of these women's experiences and gain insight into how clinicians and healthcare services can lessen the impact of this traumatic event on patients and their families. Methods: We conducted a descriptive qualitative study of women who presented to the ED or EPC at an urban tertiary care hospital and an urban community hospital for early pregnancy loss or threatened loss. Purposive sampling was used to recruit patients for in-depth, one-on-one telephone interviews conducted 4-6 weeks after the index visit. Data collection and analysis were concurrent and continued until thematic saturation had occurred. Data analysis was led by two qualitative researchers with support from a multi-disciplinary research team following standard thematic analysis techniques. Results: Interviews were completed with 59 women between July 2018 and August 2019. Participants ranged in age from 22 to 47 years and reflect the diversity of the multicultural city where the study occurred. Our analysis revealed that the medicalization and normalization of early pregnancy complications among ED and EPC clinicians is at odds with women's general lack of knowledge about the frequency, personal risk, causation, duration, and physical intensity of the miscarriage experience. Women identified the value of rapid access to appointments, point of care ultrasound, detailed care plans, and knowledgeable advice as key to lessening the physical and emotional trauma related to early pregnancy loss. Conclusion: This research highlights the physical, emotional, and psychological complexity of a medical situation frequently minimized within the current healthcare system. The results impart important knowledge about which aspects of ED and EPC care are most valued by women experiencing early pregnancy loss or threatened loss and demonstrate the clear need for women and their families to be provided with more education about the totality of the early pregnancy experience, including the possibility of pregnancy complications and loss.
We observed the 2 July 2019 total solar eclipse with a variety of imaging and spectroscopic instruments recording from three sites in mainland Chile: on the centerline at La Higuera, from the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and from La Serena, as well as from a chartered flight at peak totality in mid-Pacific. Our spectroscopy monitored Fe X, Fe XIV, and Ar X lines, and we imaged Ar X with a Lyot filter adjusted from its original H-alpha bandpass. Our composite imaging has been compared with predictions based on modeling using magnetic-field measurements from the pre-eclipse month. Our time-differenced sites will be used to measure motions in coronal streamers.
Introduction: Women experiencing complications of early pregnancy frequently seek care in the emergency department (ED), as most have not yet established care with an obstetrical provider. The objective of this study was to explore the lived experiences and perceptions of care of women treated for early pregnancy complications in the ED and early pregnancy clinic (EPC). Methods: We conducted an interpretive phenomenological qualitative study of women who presented to the ED or EPC of an urban tertiary care hospital with early pregnancy loss or threatened loss. We employed purposive sampling to recruit participants for in-depth, one-on-one telephone interviews conducted approximately 6 weeks after the index visit. Data collection and analysis were concurrent and continued until thematic saturation had occurred. Our research team of two qualitative researchers, a clinician, a clinical researcher, and a research student performed a phenomenologically-informed thematic analysis including three phases of coding to identify essential patterns of lived experience and meaning across the sample. Results: Interviews were completed with 30 women between July and August 2018. Participants ranged in age from 22 to 45 years and reflected the diversity of the multicultural city where the study occurred. Four key themes of patient experience were identified: tensions between what is known and unknown by women and ED staff about early pregnancy complications and care in hospital, stigmatization of early pregnancy complications and ED use, normalization of a chaotic experience, and the overwhelm of unexpected outcomes during the ED visit. Conclusion: The perspectives of women attending the ED or EPC for early pregnancy complications highlights the ways in which the current health care system minimizes and medicalizes early pregnancy complications in this setting and fails to adequately support these women. The emotional complexity of this medical situation is often overlooked by ED staff and can produce encounters that are traumatic for patients and families. However, the participants’ negative experiences occurring in the ED were often mitigated with their care in their follow-up with the EPC.
Introduction: The Ontario emergency department (ED) Return Visit Quality Program (RVQP) launched in 2016 and aims to promote continuous quality improvement (QI) in the province's largest EDs. The program mandates routine audits of cases involving patients who had ED return visits within 72hrs that led to admission to hospital, in order to identify quality issues that can be tackled through QI initiatives. Our objective was to formally evaluate how well the RVQP achieved its aim of promoting continuous QI at participating sites using the constructivist grounded theory. Methods: Using a semi-structured interview guide, we employed a maximum variation sampling approach to ensure diverse representation across several geographical and institutional experiences (e.g., urban vs. rural, academic vs. community). Selected RVQP program leads were invited to participate in a phone interview to yield maximal insight, additionally using a snowball sampling approach to reach non-lead physicians to capture the penetration of the program. Interviews were conducted until thematic saturation was reached and no new insights were gleaned. Interviews were initially cross-performed by two members of the research team, recorded, transcribed, and de-identified. Data analysis was conducted using a constant comparative approach through the development of a coding framework and triangulation with the respondents’ ED setting. We then grouped, compared and refined our analytic categories through an inductive, iterative approach. Results: Between June and August 2018, we interviewed 32 participants, including 21 RVQP program leads and 11 non-lead physicians, from a total of 23 diverse sites (out of 84). Our analysis suggests that the RVQP provides a structured method for EDs to frame the continuous collection of data in order to channel activities towards quality improvement projects based on identified needs. Success factors included: greater involvement with QI processes prior to the RVQP leading to more openness to improvement, a more collaborative approach to RVQP implementation which led to greater front-line workers’ understanding and engagement, and more resources dedicated to implementing the RVQP as well as tackling the quality issues it identified. Conclusion: This study evaluated the impact of an innovative and large-scale program aimed at improving the culture of quality in Ontario EDs. While the program is still relatively new, early results show that there are key elements of EDs that support building a culture of QI.
Introduction: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) are questionnaires that can be used to elicit care outcome information from patients. We sought to develop and validate the first PROM for adult patients without a primary mental health or addictions presentation receiving emergency department (ED) care and who were not hospitalized. Methods: PROM development used a multi-phase process based on national and international guidance (FDA, NQF, ISPOR). Phase 1: ED outcome conceptual framework qualitative interviews with ED patients post-discharge informed four core domains (previously published). Phase 2: Item generation scoping review of the literature and existing instruments identified candidate questions relevant for each domain for inclusion in tool. Phase 3: Cognitive debriefing existing and newly written questions were tested with ED patients post-discharge for comprehension and wording preference. Phase 4: Field and validity testing revised tool pilot tested on a national online survey panel and then again at 2 weeks (test-retest). Phase 5: Final item reduction using a Delphi process involving ED clinicians, researchers, patients and system administrators. Phase 6: Validation - psychometric testing of PROM-ED 1.0. Results: Four core outcome domains were defined in Phase 1: (1) understanding; (2) symptom relief; (3) reassurance and (4) having a plan. The domains informed a review of existing relevant questionnaires and instruments and the writing of additional questions creating an initial long-form questionnaire. Eight patients participated in cognitive debriefing of the long-form questionnaire. Expert clinicians, researchers and patient partners provided input on item refinement and reduction. Four hundred forty-four patients completed a second version of the long-form questionnaire (add in retest numbers) which informed the final item reduction process by a modified Delphi method involving 21 diverse contributors. The questionnaire was validated and underwent final revisions to create the 21 questions that constitute PROM-ED 1.0. Conclusion: Using accepted PROM instrument development methodology, we developed the first outcome questionnaire for use with adult ED patients who are not hospitalized. This questionnaire can be used to systematically gather patient-reported outcome information that could support and inform improvement work in ED care.
Introduction: Hospital-based gun violence is devastatingly traumatic for everyone present and recent events in Cobourg, Ontario underscore that an active shooter inside the emergency department (ED) is an imminent threat. In June 2016, the Ontario Hospital Association (OHA) added Code Silver to the list of standardized emergency preparedness colour codes and advised member hospitals to develop policies and train staff on how best to respond. Given that EDs are particularly susceptible to opportunistic breach by an active shooter, the impact of a Code Silver on ED functioning and staff members may be particularly acute. We hypothesized that there may not be a simple, one-size-fits-all-hospital-staff solution about how best to prepare EDs to respond to Code Silver. In order to inform and support future staff training initiatives related to Code Silver and other disaster situations in hospitals, we sought to investigate staff perspectives and behaviour related to personal safety at work and, in particular, an active shooter. Methods: We undertook a qualitative interview study of multi-disciplinary ED staff (MDs, RNs, clericals, allied health, administrators) at a single tertiary care centre in Toronto. The primary methods for data collection were in-depth qualitative interviews and focus groups. Participants were recruited using stakeholder and maximum variation sampling strategies. Data collection and analysis were concurrent and standard thematic analysis techniques were employed. Results: Sixteen (16) staff members participated in interviews and 40 participated in small focus group discussions. Data analysis revealed workplace violence and personal health risks have been normalized as expected, acceptable features of everyday life at work in the ED given that patients are perceived to be sick people in need of help that ED staff are trained for and prepared to provide. In contrast, weapons and active shooters challenge the boundaries of professional responsibility and readiness to respond to Code Silver is perceived by staff as a fallacy. Conclusion: Knowledge from this study gives us crucial insight into important areas for targeted training and opportunities for knowledge translation on the topic of implementing Code Silver in EDs across the country. Future interventions must include how to overcome normalization of workplace violence in the ED setting and negotiating competing professional obligations during crisis situations. Attention to these are crucial if we are to truly keep our staff safe during these traumatic events.
The existence of coronal plasmoids has been postulated for many years in order to supply material to streamers and possibly to the solar wind (SW). The W-L SoHO C2 Lasco coronagraph observations were made under the 2.2 solar radii (R0) occulting disk to look at the ultimate sources of the SW; EUV imagers are preferably devoted to the analysis of the corona on and very near the solar disk. Here, in addition to eclipse white-light (W-L) snapshots, we used the new SWAP space-borne imager designed for the systematic survey of coronal activity in the EUV lines near 17.4 nm, over a field of view (FOV) up to 2 R0. Using summed and co-aligned images, the corona can then be evaluated for the 1st time up to the limit of this FOV. At the time of the July 11, 2010, solar total eclipse a 20h continuous run of observations was collected, including images taken during eclipse totality from several ground observing locations where W-L data were collected. A plasmoid-like off-limb event was followed using the SWAP summed
Commission 36 acts as a sponsor or co-sponsor at the following symposi and colloquia: IAU Colloquium No. 90 “Upper Main Sequence Stars with Anomalous Abundances”, Crima, USSR (May 1985), IAU Colloquium No. 89 “Radiation Hydrodynamics in Stars and Compact Objects”, Copenhagen, Denmark (June 1985), IAU Symposium No. 120 “Astrochemistry”, Goa, India (December 1985), IAU Colloquium No. 87 “Hydrogen Deficient Stars and Related Objects”, Bangalore, India (December 1985).
Commission 36 acts as a cosponsor of the following Symposia: (1) IAU Symposium No. 102 “Solar and Stellar Magnetic Fields: Origin and Coronal Effects” Zurich, Switzerland (2-6 August 1982) and (2) IAU Symposium No. 103 “Planetary Nebulae” London, UK (10-1U August 1982). The commission participates jointly with Commissions 29, 35, and 45 in the organization of a Joint Discussion at the IXth General Assembly on the topic “Mass-Loss-Phenomena”.
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