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Air temperature lapse rates vary geographically and temporally. Sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island provides an opportunity to compare lapse rates between windward and leeward slopes in a hyper-oceanic climate. Lapse rates were steep by global standards, typically close to the dry adiabatic lapse rate despite the near-constant high humidity. Limited diurnal and seasonal variation occurs in lapse rates on Macquarie Island. High variability of lapse rates on the eastern (lee) slope in summer months and in the midday hours appears to be driven by solar radiation. No diurnal or seasonal pattern was evident on the western slope. Development of orographic cloud is expected to modify lapse rates, given the theoretical shift between dry and saturated adiabatic lapse rates that occurs with condensation of water vapour. Cloud cover was frequent, with higher elevations being under cloud 50% of the time, with no seasonal variation. However, cloud base level did not explain variation in lapse rates. Low cloud is likely to be of ecological importance because it influences fog precipitation, solar radiation and evapotranspiration. Year-round dominance of westerly airflows and limited seasonal variation in air temperature and humidity explain the limited seasonal variation in cloud cover and lapse rates on Macquarie Island.
Despite comparable antipsychotic exposure, some patients experience involuntary movements yet others do not. Negative symptoms have been associated with tardive dyskinesia, but it is not certain that this is an association with primary negative symptoms.
To determine whether patients with deficit schizophrenia (who have primary negative symptoms) are more likely to experience tardive dyskinesia than those with non-deficit schizophrenia.
In 2006 all the people with a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia in Nithsdale, South West Scotland, were identified using the ‘key informant’ method. These patients were assessed using the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome (SDS) and for the presence of dyskinesia using the Abnormal Involuntary Movements Scale (AIMS). Patients were also assessed for akathisia using the Barnes-Akathisia Scale and for extrapyramidal side effects using the Simpson and Angus rating scale.
There is a significant association between deficit and TD when controlling for age. Those with tardive dyskinesia are more likely to have deficit schizophrenia. The odds ratio is 3.08 (95% CI 1.28, 7.37), p = 0.012.
Our findings support the proposal that the pathological process underlying deficit schizophrenia can predispose to the development of tardive dyskinesia.
Recent work has implicated one type of horizontal strabismus (exotropia) as a risk factor for schizophrenia. This new insight raises questions about a potential common developmental origin of the two diseases. Seasonality of births is well established for schizophrenia. Seasonal factors such as light exposure affect eye growth and can cause vision abnormalities, but little is known about seasonality of births in strabismus. We examined birth seasonality in people with horizontal strabismus in a retrospective study in Washoe County, Nevada, and re-examined similar previously obtained data from Osaka, Japan. We then compared seasonal patterns of births between strabismus, refractive error, schizophrenia and congenital toxoplasmosis. Patients with esotropia had a significant seasonality of births, with a deficit in March, then increasing to an excess in September, while patients with exotropia had a distinctly different pattern, with an excess of births in July, gradually decreasing to a deficit in November. These seasonalities were statistically significant with either χ2 or Kolmogorov–Smirnov-type statistics. The birth seasonality of esotropia resembled that for hyperopia, with an increase in amplitude, while the seasonality for myopia involved a phase-shift. There was no correlation between seasonality of births between strabismus and congenital toxoplasmosis. The pattern of an excess of summer births for people with exotropia was remarkably similar to the well-established birth seasonality of one schizophrenia subtype, the deficit syndrome, but not schizophrenia as a whole. This suggests a testable hypothesis: that exotropia may be a risk factor primarily for the deficit type of schizophrenia.
Financial incentives may aid in conservation if they broaden the numbers and types of landowners who engage in protection and conservation management on private land. We examined the hypotheses that financial incentives (1) encourage participation of people with lower autonomous motivation towards conservation and lower self-transcendence (i.e. benevolence and universalism) values compared to participants in similar programmes without such incentives; (2) enable more on-ground works and activities; and (3) enhance feelings of competence and autonomy with respect to conservation actions. We surveyed 193 landowners in private land conservation programmes in Tasmania, only some of whom had received financial incentives. All of these landowners had high self-transcendence values, and autonomous motivation towards the environment. Owners of large properties and participants with higher self-enhancement values, lower self-transcendence values and lower autonomous motivation towards the environment were slightly more likely to engage in incentive programmes. However, people who received funding did not report more conservation actions than people in programmes without incentives. Owners of larger properties receiving incentives reported fewer conservation actions. Thus financial incentives probably recruited a few into nature conservation who may not have otherwise engaged, but did not result in a more intensive level of conservation management. Our results caution against the blanket-use of incentives amongst landowners who may already have values and motivations consistent with environmental action, and point to the need for further research on the socio-psychological characteristics of landowners, to examine the contextual factors that influence the effects of conservation payments.
Simulation models are used widely in pharmacology, epidemiology and health economics (HEs). However, there have been no attempts to incorporate models from these disciplines into a single integrated model. Accordingly, we explored this linkage to evaluate the epidemiological and economic impact of oseltamivir dose optimisation in supporting pandemic influenza planning in the USA. An HE decision analytic model was linked to a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) – dynamic transmission model simulating the impact of pandemic influenza with low virulence and low transmissibility and, high virulence and high transmissibility. The cost-utility analysis was from the payer and societal perspectives, comparing oseltamivir 75 and 150 mg twice daily (BID) to no treatment over a 1-year time horizon. Model parameters were derived from published studies. Outcomes were measured as cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Sensitivity analyses were performed to examine the integrated model's robustness. Under both pandemic scenarios, compared to no treatment, the use of oseltamivir 75 or 150 mg BID led to a significant reduction of influenza episodes and influenza-related deaths, translating to substantial savings of QALYs. Overall drug costs were offset by the reduction of both direct and indirect costs, making these two interventions cost-saving from both perspectives. The results were sensitive to the proportion of inpatient presentation at the emergency visit and patients’ quality of life. Integrating PK/PD–EPI/HE models is achievable. Whilst further refinement of this novel linkage model to more closely mimic the reality is needed, the current study has generated useful insights to support influenza pandemic planning.
Patients with schizophrenia exhibit a reduced life expectancy. Although unhealthy lifestyle or suicide risk plays a role, the main causes are diverse medical conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Albeit pharmacological secondary side effects might also trigger previous conditions, studies in naïve patients reflect diverse anomalies at the onset. Patients with a first episode of psychosis, display a wide scope of metabolic abnormalities, ranging from normality till pathological values depending on the parameters studied. We attempted to evaluate the metabolic syndrome and glycemic homeostasis in a subset of antipsychotic-naïve patients with a first episode of non-affective psychosis. Patients (n = 84) showed a similar prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared with a matched control sample (n = 98) (6% vs 4%, P = 0.562), while glucose homeostasis values differed significantly (14% vs. 5%, P = 0.034). Our results suggest that metabolic syndrome is not a useful clinical condition to be evaluated in patients before pharmacological treatment. Abnormal glycemic homeostasis at the onset of the disease requires specific diagnostic tools and preventive measures in order to avoid future cardiovascular events. New strategies must be implemented in order to evaluate the cardiovascular risk and subsequent morbidity in patients at the onset of the disease.
How do varying levels of inter-group contact affect voter preferences in connection with ethnically radical political candidates and parties? Two competing hypotheses have emerged in the last 60 years: the first, known as the group threat hypothesis, argues that voters from an ethnic or religious group in more ethnically or racially heterogeneous districts will exhibit stronger preferences for ethnically radical political candidates. The contact hypothesis argues that groups living in mixed localities are actually less likely to support ethnic radicals. Both perspectives have found empirical support, but no previous study has offered a theoretical explanation for two seemingly contradictory conclusions. We specify just such a theory, arguing that the effect of district level integration is conditioned by the direction of a group’s share of the national population. We test this theory quantitatively using electoral data from Northern Ireland between 1983 and 2010.
We investigated the effects of host tree on epiphyte diversity, controlling for microclimate. We measured the light profiles of the lower trunks of 20 individuals, each from three host groups (tree ferns, dicots, palms) occupying the understorey in a tropical montane forest in Panama. The per cent cover and species richness of vascular and non-vascular epiphytes were surveyed on the lower trunks of each understorey host. Light varied considerably between trees (5–21% total transmitted light) but mean light level did not vary between types of host. Light was not significant as a covariate with host in any model. Tree ferns had higher covers than dicots and palms of filmy ferns (15%, 0.02% and 0.2%), other ferns (7%, 0% and 0.5%) and other vascular epiphytes (16%, 3% and 3.4%), and greater species richness of vascular epiphytes (filmy ferns: 3, 0.4 and 0.5; other ferns: 2, 0.2 and 0; other vascular: 7, 2 and 2). Dicots had a higher cover of liverworts (53%) than palms (18%) and tree ferns (27%). Palms and tree ferns were the compositional extremes. We conclude that the differences in species composition and cover between the three host groups relate better to physical differences between hosts than differences in light climate.
To evauluate our novel ultrasound model for measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) and determine the intra- and inter-operator variability associated with this technique.
We conducted ten measurements of ONSD per model amongst eight different models with a single experienced operator to examine intra-operator variability. Similarly, we had seven different operators measure the OSND twice in eight different models, in order to determine inter-operator variability analyzed with a three level linear statistical model.
For intra-operator variability, the intra-cluster correlation coefficients for the experienced and novice operators were 0.643 and 0.453 respectively. This displayed improvement in intra-operator variability with experience. The inter-cluster correlation coefficient was 0 for the group of novice operators, indicating negligible difference amongst multiple operators in measuring any given model of ONSD. A strong, statistically significant, linear relationship between the actual model disc size and the ultrasound ONSD measures was identified, implying the reliability of the images produced by our novel model.
Utilizing a novel model for ONSD ultrasonography, we have determined the intraoperator reliability of ONSD measurement to be moderate, with no appreciable difference amongst multiple operators. Improvement in measurement reliability has been demonstrated between expert and novice operators with our model, indicating the potential benefit of simulation platforms for teaching the technique of ONSD ultrasound.
An unprecedented total of 190 holo-epiphytic and five hemi-epiphytic vascular plant species were collected from the canopy and the trunk of a single strangler fig (Ficus crassiuscula) in a Peruvian montane cloud forest. A large majority of the vascular species were rare in occurrence, suggesting a high proportion of patchily distributed species within the cloud forest. One hundred and fourteen of the vascular epiphyte species were orchids, 37 species were ferns, and 17 species were bromeliads. Seventy-three of the orchid species belonged to the Pleurothallidinae. Perú is one of the global strongholds of remaining unmodified tropical montane cloud forest. However, cloud forest studies on any topic emanating from Perú are relatively rare. The outstanding epiphyte species richness of a single tree highlights both the importance of cloud forests for global biodiversity, and the urgency for more research and conservation initiatives within the cloud forests of Perú.
Peruvian montane cloud forests are one of the global strongholds of remaining unmodified tropical montane cloud forest (Mulligan, this volume). However, they have received comparatively little scientific attention until now (e.g. Frahm, 1987: Leo, 1995; Weng et al. 2004; Gomez-Peralta et al., 2008) and are under increasing threat of deforestation (Young and León, 1995; Mulligan, this volume). The extinction rate of plant species through cloud forest removal in Perú is unknown because most cloud forests have not been botanically prospected (Honorio and Reynel, 2004). Epiphyte flora makes up a large component of plant diversity in Andean forests (Gentry and Dodson, 1987a; Kelly et al., 1994; Bussmann, 2001; Nieder et al., 2001, cf. Gradstein et al., this volume; Krömer and Gradstein, this volume).
The effects of trampling on six types of vegetation and their underlying soils were investigated on sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island. One hundred and fifty foot-passes per year for at least the past 10 years have occurred on a typical 6-km stretch of walking track on the island's upland plateau. Trampling favours vascular plants including exotics, especially Poa annua, while bryophytes and lichens are more common in undisturbed vegetation. The abundance of 19 of the 39 most common species appears to be affected by trampling. Track width is positively correlated with exposure and wet soils, and trampling increases the soil bulk density of the track. The contrast between the soil bulk density of the trampled and untrampled soils increases with increasing exposure. While present environmental damage is within an acceptable range over the majority of the island, the extreme environments are likely to suffer unacceptable levels of damage if increased usage occurs with more tourism or expansion of scientific and related activities. This is demonstrated by the diversion of a short section of plateau track in an atypically heavily used area; the diversion sustained substantial damage after 890 foot-passes during a 15-month period.
The serious problem presented by the high prevalence of severe pulmonary tuberculosis in early adult life in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland is exemplified by the figures in the following table, for which we are indebted to the Department of Health and the Registrar-General for Scotland.
Las manifestaciones psicopatológicas de la esquizofrenia se agrupan en tomo a varios dominios de síntomas. Uno de estos dominios son los síntomas negativos. Hemos definido el síndrome deficitario como una entidad patológica caracterizada por la presencia de síntomas negativos duraderos primarios. Un enfoque en lo s síntomas negativos primarios demuestra que los subgrupos de esquizofrenia deficitaria y no deficitaria difieren en los rasgos clínicos, los hallazgos de imágenes neurales asociadas, las medidas neuropsicológicas y neurológicas, el patrón de factores de riesgo y los perfiles de respuesta farmacológica. En el presente artículo, nos centramos en la importancia de la distinción entre los síntomas negativos primarios y secundarios para la investigación fisiopatológica. El desarrollo y comprensión mecanicista de fármacos contra los síntomas negativos puede ser informativo con respecto a la fisiopatología de los síntomas negativos primarios. Aunque los nuevos antipsicóticos son efectivos para los síntomas negativos secundarios, no han mostrado eficacia para el síndrome deficitario y parece que se requieren nuevos mecanismos de acción farmacológica para estudiar este aspecto del síndrome patológico. La pérdida de experiencias humanas inapreciables y la asociación con mala evolución funcional a largo plazo justifica un esfuerzo enfocado y dedicado a descubrir las causas y los tratamientos de este aspecto distintivo de la esquizofrenia.
Searches in Clusters, Stellar Associations and the Field
J. Liebert, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA,
I. N. Reid, California Institute of Technology, 105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA,
J. D. Kirkpatrick, IPAC, Caltech 100-24, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA,
R. Cutri, IPAC, Caltech 100-24, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA,
B. Nelson, IPAC, Caltech 100-24, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA,
D. G. Monet, U.S. Naval observatory, P.O. Box 1149, Flagstaff AZ 86002, USA,
C. C. Dahn, U.S. Naval observatory, P.O. Box 1149, Flagstaff AZ 86002, USA,
M. Skrutskie, University of Massachusetts, Amherst MA 01003, USA,
J. E. Gizis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst MA 01003, USA,
M. D. Fisher, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
The initiation of the DENIS and 2MASS surveys are resulting in the discoveries of dozens of field brown dwarf candidates, and the need to develop a new spectral class of L dwarfs. The L dwarfs are perhaps only a few hundred degrees cooler than the latest M dwarfs (M9–9.5 V), and are many hundreds of degrees warmer than the brown dwarf Gliese 229B. However, the formation of dust removes TiO and VO from the atmospheres, resulting in qualitatively different red spectra, with for example a strong, pressure-broadened K I resonance doublet. In contrast, the infrared spectra show the same (H2O and CO) molecular features as in late M dwarfs, with no evidence of methane. The detection of the Li I 6707 Å resonance doublet shows that many L dwarfs, at least, have substellar masses. Based on analysis of point sources from the first 1% of sky, well over 1,000 L dwarfs should be detected in the 2MASS survey. Our results suggest that several might exist within 5 pc of the Sun.
After waiting three decades since Kumar (1963) proposed their existence, we are gratified to see literally dozens of candidates probably or definitely below the stellar mass limit being found in young clusters and associations. Here one has the big advantages that the age, the distance and luminosity of a cluster member are generally known. In this presentation, complementary to the topic of this meeting, we report the finding of a large number of candidates in one of the first infrared surveys of the field population.