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In this work two aspects of momentum-dependent electron energy loss spectrometry are studied,
both in the core-loss and in the low-loss region. In the case of core losses, we focus on the demonstration and
the interpretation of an unexpected non-Lorentzian behavior in the angular part of the double-differential
scattering cross-section. The silicon L3 edge is taken as an example. Using calculations we show that the
non-Lorentzian behavior is due to a change in the wavefunction overlap between the initial and the final
states. In the case of low losses, we first analyze the momentum-dependent loss functions of coinage metals
Cu, Ag, and Au. We then demonstrate how advanced electronic structure calculations can be used to
build simple models for the dielectric function that can then serve as a basis for the calculation of more
complicated sample geometries.
The behaviour of clays is not still well understood. Most information
concerning clays has been obtained by techniques which give statistical
information on the structure and chemistry. However papers have reported
results from scanning and high resolution electron microscopy. This work
presents a nanoscopic approach, using electron energy loss spectroscopy
(EELS), of different purified clays. EELS permitted to detect all the
elements found by classical chemistry at a macroscopic level. In particular
it made it possible to determine the Si/Al ratio in kaolinite (Si/Al ~ 1), smectite and illite (Si/Al ~ 2). In all the cases, the K edge
oxygen energy loss near edge structure (ELNES) is often similar to that of
other clays we studied, but a strong heterogeneity has been observed. It was
also possible to highlight an influence of the presence of iron on the
profile of the oxygen peak.
EELS (electron energy loss spectrometry) in the transmission electron
microscope (TEM) was used to determine the
composition of a nanocrystalline magnetic specimen. The relative amounts
of the hard magnetic phase Nd2Fe14B and the soft magnetic phase Fe3B at
the point of measurement was measured by standard EELS quantification. In
order to determine the structure of Fe3B present, the fine
structure of the boron K-ionisation edge was analysed. Comparison of the
experimental spectra with simulations of the fine structures based on the
TELNES extension of the WIEN97 program package, a full potential
linearised augmented plane wave approach to the calculation of
electronic structure in crystals, shows that the tetragonal form of
Fe3B is predominant.
High resolution electron imaging supported by computer image simulation has been carried out for a nominal “second–stage” NiCl2 graphite compound. The resulting local structure information underlines the statistical nature of the stage ordering, rarely perfectly regular. It also shows the interpenetration of differently staged regions.
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