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ADHD is one of the most frequent developmental disorders in childhood. Adults also suffer from symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prevalence estimates of ADHD in adult community samples (5%) are based on American and West-European studies. Most of research though is concentrated on early ADHD symptoms. There are no sufficient data on clinical manifestation and scale of this problem in Poland.
To assess prevalence (life and 12-month), access to psychiatric care and other clinical and sociodemographic aspects of ADHD in adult population in Poland (both contemporary and retrospective). The first Polish nationwide survey, Epidemiology of Mental Disorders and Access to Care (EZOP, Poland)” was included in the WHO's WMH.
The aim of this paper is to present collected data on ADHD in community sample.
Composite International Diagnostic Interview (cidi capi v.3.1) was administered in random sample of Poles aged 18–65 (n = 10000). Data was collected from November 2010 to March 2011 by trained Millward Brown SMG/KRC interviewers.
Response rate is 50.4%. Prevalence estimated on the basis of retrospective reports in Screening Section is 2.2% for attention-deficit symptoms (2.5% for men and 1.9% for women) and 2.8% for hyperactivity symptoms (respectively 3.2% and 2.8%). Further analysis are in progress and detailed results will be known till December 2011.
Presented study will allow to introduce data on relation between intensity of early ADHD symptoms and it's later clinical manifestation. The identification of demographic factors influencing the course of the disorder and patterns of treatment will be possible.
A substantial proportion of persons with mental disorders seek treatment from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) professionals. However, data on how CAM contacts vary across countries, mental disorders and their severity, and health care settings is largely lacking. The aim was therefore to investigate the prevalence of contacts with CAM providers in a large cross-national sample of persons with 12-month mental disorders.
In the World Mental Health Surveys, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered to determine the presence of past 12 month mental disorders in 138 801 participants aged 18–100 derived from representative general population samples. Participants were recruited between 2001 and 2012. Rates of self-reported CAM contacts for each of the 28 surveys across 25 countries and 12 mental disorder groups were calculated for all persons with past 12-month mental disorders. Mental disorders were grouped into mood disorders, anxiety disorders or behavioural disorders, and further divided by severity levels. Satisfaction with conventional care was also compared with CAM contact satisfaction.
An estimated 3.6% (standard error 0.2%) of persons with a past 12-month mental disorder reported a CAM contact, which was two times higher in high-income countries (4.6%; standard error 0.3%) than in low- and middle-income countries (2.3%; standard error 0.2%). CAM contacts were largely comparable for different disorder types, but particularly high in persons receiving conventional care (8.6–17.8%). CAM contacts increased with increasing mental disorder severity. Among persons receiving specialist mental health care, CAM contacts were reported by 14.0% for severe mood disorders, 16.2% for severe anxiety disorders and 22.5% for severe behavioural disorders. Satisfaction with care was comparable with respect to CAM contacts (78.3%) and conventional care (75.6%) in persons that received both.
CAM contacts are common in persons with severe mental disorders, in high-income countries, and in persons receiving conventional care. Our findings support the notion of CAM as largely complementary but are in contrast to suggestions that this concerns person with only mild, transient complaints. There was no indication that persons were less satisfied by CAM visits than by receiving conventional care. We encourage health care professionals in conventional settings to openly discuss the care patients are receiving, whether conventional or not, and their reasons for doing so.
The treatment gap between the number of people with mental disorders and the number treated represents a major public health challenge. We examine this gap by socio-economic status (SES; indicated by family income and respondent education) and service sector in a cross-national analysis of community epidemiological survey data.
Data come from 16 753 respondents with 12-month DSM-IV disorders from community surveys in 25 countries in the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative. DSM-IV anxiety, mood, or substance disorders and treatment of these disorders were assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).
Only 13.7% of 12-month DSM-IV/CIDI cases in lower-middle-income countries, 22.0% in upper-middle-income countries, and 36.8% in high-income countries received treatment. Highest-SES respondents were somewhat more likely to receive treatment, but this was true mostly for specialty mental health treatment, where the association was positive with education (highest treatment among respondents with the highest education and a weak association of education with treatment among other respondents) but non-monotonic with income (somewhat lower treatment rates among middle-income respondents and equivalent among those with high and low incomes).
The modest, but nonetheless stronger, an association of education than income with treatment raises questions about a financial barriers interpretation of the inverse association of SES with treatment, although future within-country analyses that consider contextual factors might document other important specifications. While beyond the scope of this report, such an expanded analysis could have important implications for designing interventions aimed at increasing mental disorder treatment among socio-economically disadvantaged people.
Sleep disturbances are one of the most common underdiagnosed and undertreated health problems among the adult population.
The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of sleeping problems and their relation to sociodemographic characteristics in the Polish population, based on the results of the National Health Interview Survey carried out by the Central Statistical Office in 1996.
A stratified sampling scheme, involving two steps, was used. Standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs and their 95% confidence intervals) were calculated. Assessment of sleep-related problems was based on six questions. A representative Polish sample (47 924 non-institutionalized, adult respondents) was interviewed.
Nearly one-fourth of Polish inhabitants suffered from insomnia. The percentage was significantly higher among women (28.1%) than among men (18.1%). The prevalence of insomnia increased with age and was highest in divorced respondents. Respondents of both sexes with higher educational levels suffered from insomnia less often than individuals with lower levels of education. The problem of insomnia applies in a similar degree to inhabitants of both rural and urban regions. About one-twentieth of inhabitants of Poland experienced recent sleep deterioration related to problems. It was associated positively with age, female gender and lower education. About 20% of the population get up not rested in the morning, women significantly more often than men, urban residents more often than rural ones.
Sleep-related problems are common and the results are comparable with those from other countries. The findings have important implications, such as the necessity of better education of the public community about the identification and possibilities of treatment of sleep disturbance.
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