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Bacterial superinfection and antibiotic prescribing in the setting of the current mpox outbreak are not well described in the literature. This retrospective observational study revealed low prevalence (11%) of outpatient antibiotic prescribing for bacterial superinfection of mpox lesions; at least 3 prescriptions (23%) were unnecessary.
We aimed to examine the attitudes of Pennsylvania rural residents toward data sharing in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic. Specifically, we were interested in better understanding their willingness to provide personal information for contact tracing to public health staff investigating COVID-19 cases, as well as their concerns. We used a validated scale to describe the influence of distrust of healthcare organizations on their attitudes.
We mailed 4000 surveys to rural residents identified from the electronic medical record of a healthcare system in central Pennsylvania. Data were entered into a REDCap database and analyzed using descriptive summaries, and both binomial and multivariable logistic regression.
Binomial logistic regression showed that both distrust in healthcare organizations and political values influence respondents’ willingness to share information with contact tracers as well as their concerns about sharing personal data. When our multivariable model was applied, political values remained and were consistently associated with willingness to share and concerns about sharing their data.
This study is a first step in eliciting rural residents’ willingness to share personal data for contact tracing by public health officials. Understanding and addressing rural residents’ willingness to share personal data and their concerns about sharing those data will help public health officials identify effective strategies for managing COVID-19 and future pandemics in rural communities. By involving community members at the ground level, public health staff can ensure residents’ buy-in for the need to collect their personal data, thereby helping to mitigate the public health crises.
The interaction of relativistically intense lasers with opaque targets represents a highly non-linear, multi-dimensional parameter space. This limits the utility of sequential 1D scanning of experimental parameters for the optimization of secondary radiation, although to-date this has been the accepted methodology due to low data acquisition rates. High repetition-rate (HRR) lasers augmented by machine learning present a valuable opportunity for efficient source optimization. Here, an automated, HRR-compatible system produced high-fidelity parameter scans, revealing the influence of laser intensity on target pre-heating and proton generation. A closed-loop Bayesian optimization of maximum proton energy, through control of the laser wavefront and target position, produced proton beams with equivalent maximum energy to manually optimized laser pulses but using only 60% of the laser energy. This demonstration of automated optimization of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step towards deeper physical insight and the construction of future radiation sources.
We present the development and characterization of a high-stability, multi-material, multi-thickness tape-drive target for laser-driven acceleration at repetition rates of up to 100 Hz. The tape surface position was measured to be stable on the sub-micrometre scale, compatible with the high-numerical aperture focusing geometries required to achieve relativistic intensity interactions with the pulse energy available in current multi-Hz and near-future higher repetition-rate lasers ($>$kHz). Long-term drift was characterized at 100 Hz demonstrating suitability for operation over extended periods. The target was continuously operated at up to 5 Hz in a recent experiment for 70,000 shots without intervention by the experimental team, with the exception of tape replacement, producing the largest data-set of relativistically intense laser–solid foil measurements to date. This tape drive provides robust targetry for the generation and study of high-repetition-rate ion beams using next-generation high-power laser systems, also enabling wider applications of laser-driven proton sources.
Adolescent pregnancy can impact the educational attainment of adolescent mothers and language development of their children. However, support services and interventions can mitigate these risk factors. Adolescent mothers have shown success in implementing various language facilitation strategies (LFS) with their children when coached. We developed a triadic language intervention in a facilitated playgroup context to support adolescent mothers’ use of language strategies when interacting with their children. The current pilot study utilized a pre-test, post-test descriptive approach to analyze differences in adolescent mothers’ language use and parenting behaviors and their children’s language use after participation in facilitated playgroups. All adolescent mothers demonstrated enhanced parenting practices. Changes in mothers’ and children’s language from pre- to post-test were variable across participants. While this pilot study shows promising evidence of the utility of a triadic intervention situated in playgroups with adolescent families, further research is required to address the limitations of this study.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The goal of this study was to examine the attitudes of central Pennsylvania rural residents toward data sharing in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic. We determined their willingness to provide cell phone data and personal information to public health staff investigating COVID-19 cases, as well as their concerns about sharing this information. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We used the electronic medical records of an academic healthcare institution in central Pennsylvania to obtain names and addresses of patients who had visited an outpatient clinic or been an inpatient within the prior three years, were 18 years or older, and who resided in a community defined as rural by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The survey included four statements about contact tracing, three statements about intent to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, and validated scales for general trust and for distrust in healthcare organizations. All study variables were summarized to determine their distributions, and bivariate binomial logistic regression was conducted. A multivariable model including all of the independent variables was then fit for each outcome variable. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The response rate was 19.5%. 95 % of respondents were white, 56% were female, and nearly two-thirds were older than 60 years. Binomial logistic regression showed that both distrust in healthcare organizations and political values influenced respondents willingness to share information with contact tracers as well as their concerns about sharing. In multivariate analysis, political values were a consistent predicator of willingness to share and concerns about sharing. Respondents who indicated that they wanted to get vaccinated as soon as possible were significantly more likely than those who did not want to be vaccinated to be willing to share their cell phone location data and personal data. Conversely, they were less likely to be concerned with these data being shared without their permission. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Understanding rural residents concerns about sharing personal information is critical if we are to develop successful strategies for lessening the impact of COVID-19 and managing future pandemics. This study is a first step in eliciting such concerns in the context of COVID-19and has implications for directing a successful pandemic response.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Vaccination for COVID-19 is a primary public health strategy to control the pandemic. In this study, we examined how various sociodemographic variables influence rural residents intentions to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. We also examined the role of distrust in healthcare organizations in these intentions. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: sing the electronic medical records of an academic healthcare institution in central Pennsylvania, we obtained names and addresses of patients who had been an inpatient or outpatient within the prior three years, were 18 years or older, and who resided in a community defined as rural by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The survey included three statements about the intent to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, an open-ended question about concerns regarding the vaccine, and validated scales for general trust and for distrust in healthcare organizations. All study variables were summarized to determine their distributions, and then bivariate binomial logistic regression analyses were conducted. Responses to the open-ended question were coded and used as variables in the bivariate analysis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Respondents reporting conservative political views were more likely (compared to those liberal political views) to never want to be vaccinated for COVID-19. Those who expressed distrust in healthcare organizations were less likely to want to be vaccinated soon. Conversely those who were more trusting said they were more likely to want to be vaccinated soon. Respondents dominant concerns about the COVID-19 vaccine were that it was new and that the process for its development was rushed. Respondents who believed that COVID-19 was a hoax were unlikely to ever want to be vaccinated, while those who distrusted the process in some way (new vaccine or rushed vaccine) were more likely to want to wait to be vaccinated. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings confirm the impact of political orientation on COVID-19 vaccination intention and suggest that distrust in healthcare organizations may prevent people from being vaccinated. These data provide evidence that people delaying vaccination hold different beliefs than those who will never vaccinate.
Burnout, anxiety and depression are commonly reported among surgical residents and faculty members. Resident training programmes are encouraged to implement structured wellness initiatives, to address emotional stress.
Thirty otolaryngology residents and faculty members were invited to participate in this prospective pilot trial. Participants were randomised to either the intervention group, which involved completing 10 mobile meditation sessions, or the control group. Outcomes were measured with the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale-7, Patient Health Questionnaire and Professional Quality of Life scale.
Nineteen participants completed the study. Participants in the intervention group had a significantly greater mean change in Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale-7 score (−2.7 ± 3.335 vs 0.33 ± 1.225; p = 0.04). There was no significant difference in average change in Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores or Professional Quality of Life scale sub-scores between the intervention and control groups.
Short meditation sessions can significantly improve anxiety in surgical residents and faculty members, and they offer a simple, attainable and effective wellness intervention.
We summarize some of the past year's most important findings within climate change-related research. New research has improved our understanding about the remaining options to achieve the Paris Agreement goals, through overcoming political barriers to carbon pricing, taking into account non-CO2 factors, a well-designed implementation of demand-side and nature-based solutions, resilience building of ecosystems and the recognition that climate change mitigation costs can be justified by benefits to the health of humans and nature alone. We consider new insights about what to expect if we fail to include a new dimension of fire extremes and the prospect of cascading climate tipping elements.
A synthesis is made of 10 topics within climate research, where there have been significant advances since January 2020. The insights are based on input from an international open call with broad disciplinary scope. Findings include: (1) the options to still keep global warming below 1.5 °C; (2) the impact of non-CO2 factors in global warming; (3) a new dimension of fire extremes forced by climate change; (4) the increasing pressure on interconnected climate tipping elements; (5) the dimensions of climate justice; (6) political challenges impeding the effectiveness of carbon pricing; (7) demand-side solutions as vehicles of climate mitigation; (8) the potentials and caveats of nature-based solutions; (9) how building resilience of marine ecosystems is possible; and (10) that the costs of climate change mitigation policies can be more than justified by the benefits to the health of humans and nature.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted lives and livelihoods, and people already experiencing mental ill health may have been especially vulnerable.
Quantify mental health inequalities in disruptions to healthcare, economic activity and housing.
We examined data from 59 482 participants in 12 UK longitudinal studies with data collected before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Within each study, we estimated the association between psychological distress assessed pre-pandemic and disruptions since the start of the pandemic to healthcare (medication access, procedures or appointments), economic activity (employment, income or working hours) and housing (change of address or household composition). Estimates were pooled across studies.
Across the analysed data-sets, 28% to 77% of participants experienced at least one disruption, with 2.3–33.2% experiencing disruptions in two or more domains. We found 1 s.d. higher pre-pandemic psychological distress was associated with (a) increased odds of any healthcare disruptions (odds ratio (OR) 1.30, 95% CI 1.20–1.40), with fully adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.24 (95% CI 1.09–1.41) for disruption to procedures to 1.33 (95% CI 1.20–1.49) for disruptions to prescriptions or medication access; (b) loss of employment (odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.06–1.21) and income (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 –1.19), and reductions in working hours/furlough (odds ratio 1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.09) and (c) increased likelihood of experiencing a disruption in at least two domains (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.18–1.32) or in one domain (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.07–1.16), relative to no disruption. There were no associations with housing disruptions (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97–1.03).
People experiencing psychological distress pre-pandemic were more likely to experience healthcare and economic disruptions, and clusters of disruptions across multiple domains during the pandemic. Failing to address these disruptions risks further widening mental health inequalities.
It is well established that migraine is a multifactorial disorder. A deep understanding of migraine should be based upon both the underlying traits and the current states affected by different physiological, psychological, and environmental factors. At this point, there is no framework fully meeting these criteria. Here, we describe a broader view of the migraine disorder defined as a dysfunctional brain state and trait interaction. In this model, we consider events that may enhance or diminish migraine responsivity based on an individual’s trait and state. This could provide an expanded view for considering how migraine attacks are sometimes precipitated by “triggers” and sometimes not, how these factors only lead to migraine attacks in migraine patients, or how individuals with an increased risk for migraine do not show any symptoms at all. Summarizing recent studies and evidence that support the concept of migraine as a brain state–trait interaction can also contribute to improving patient care by highlighting the importance of precision medicine and applying measures that are able to capture how different traits and states work together to determine migraine.
Online grocery shopping could improve access to healthy food, but it may not be equally accessible to all populations – especially those at higher risk for food insecurity. The current study aimed to compare the socio-demographic characteristics of families who ordered groceries online v. those who only shopped in-store.
We analysed enrollment survey and 44 weeks of individually linked grocery transaction data. We used univariate χ2 and t-tests and logistic regression to assess differences in socio-demographic characteristics between households that only shopped in-store and those that shopped online with curbside pickup (online only or online and in-store).
Two Maine supermarkets.
863 parents or caregivers of children under 18 years old enrolled in two fruit and vegetable incentive trials.
Participants had a total of 32 757 transactions. In univariate assessments, online shoppers had higher incomes (P < 0 0001), were less likely to participate in Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children or Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP; P < 0 0001) and were more likely to be female (P = 0·04). Most online shoppers were 30–39 years old, and few were 50 years or older (P = 0·003). After controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, number of children, number of adults, income and SNAP participation, female primary shoppers (OR = 2·75, P = 0·003), number of children (OR = 1·27, P = 0·04) and income (OR = 3·91 for 186–300 % federal poverty line (FPL) and OR = 6·92 for >300 % FPL, P < 0·0001) were significantly associated with likelihood of shopping online.
In the current study of Maine families, low-income shoppers were significantly less likely to utilise online grocery ordering with curbside pickup. Future studies could focus on elucidating barriers and developing strategies to improve access.
This paper describes a simple method of securing tissue coverage of the great vessels at the initial surgery by rotating the divided sternal heads of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, a routine step during laryngectomy, and approximating them to the prevertebral fascia. The paper presents an illustrated case example where this technique in a salvage laryngectomy repair resulted in a protected vascular axis following a salivary leak.
Since utilising this technique, there has been a marked reduction in the requirement of subsequent flap procedures to protect vessels, and no episodes of threatened or actual carotid blowout.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Our results reveal a limited amount of breast cancer survivorship print materials as both understandable and actionable, and indicate a need to supplement material with personalized teaching. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Using educational print material for young women breast cancer survivors (YBCS) is considered a best practice in patient teaching. Little is known about how well YBCS understand or act upon the material. The purpose of this study was to assess the understandability and actionability of commonly distributed breast cancer survivorship print materials. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We used an environmental scan approach to obtain breast cancer survivorship print materials available in eight outpatient oncology clinics and one electronic medical record used in a Midwestern state. Print materials were included if they were freely available to patients, were specific to breast cancer, provided detailed information about survivorship, and were directly given to patients by physicians or nurses. Print materials were excluded if topics were related to treatment, diagnosis, or prevention. All brochures, drug advertisements, and advertisements for support services were excluded. The understandability and actionability analyses of the breast cancer survivorship print materials were analyzed using Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool for Printable Materials (PEMAT-P). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The environmental scan resulted in 82 individual print materials. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, eight breast cancer survivorship print materials were included in the final sample. The final sample included two books, two patient education handouts from the electronic medical record, two multi-page booklets, and two pamphlets. The overall mean understandability score of the print materials was 68.9% ? 11.3 with a range of 47% to 80%. Five materials scored above the recommended 70% in understandability. The overall mean actionability score of the print materials was much higher at 81.3% ? 21.6 with a range of 67% to 100%. Five materials scored above 70% in actionability. However, only three of the eight materials scored above the recommended 70% in both understandability and actionability. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Limited breast cancer survivorship print materials exist as both understandable and actionable. Personalized instruction provided by oncology team members may be indicated to supplement the material. This additional teaching may help ensure survivors comprehend messages and act upon specific tasks as indicated in survivorship print material.
Roads affect wildlife in a variety of negative ways. Road ecology studies have mostly concentrated on areas in the northern hemisphere despite the potentially greater impact of roads on biodiversity in tropical habitats. Here, we examine 4 years (January 2016–December 2019) of opportunistic observations of mammalian roadkill along a road intersecting Jozani-Chwaka Bay National Park, Unguja, Zanzibar. In particular, we assess the impact of collisions on the population of an endemic primate, the Endangered Zanzibar red colobus Piliocolobus kirkii. Primates accounted for the majority of roadkill in this dataset. Monthly rainfall was not associated with roadkill frequency for mammals generally, nor for the Zanzibar red colobus. No single age–sex class of colobus was found dead more often than expected given their occurrence in the local population. The overall effect of roadkill on colobus populations in habitats fragmented by roads is unknown given the lack of accurate, long-term life history data for this species. Our findings suggest that mortality from collisions with vehicles in some groups of colobus is within the range of mortality rates other primates experience under natural predation. Unlike natural predators, however, vehicles do not kill selectively, so their impact on populations may differ. Although a comparison with historical accounts suggests that the installation of speedbumps along the road near the Park's entrance has led to a significant decrease in colobus roadkill, further actions to mitigate the impact of the road could bring substantial conservation benefits.
The catastrophic declines of three species of ‘Critically Endangered’ Gyps vultures in South Asia were caused by unintentional poisoning by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac. Despite a ban on its veterinary use in 2006 (India, Nepal, Pakistan) and 2010 (Bangladesh), residues of diclofenac have continued to be found in cattle carcasses and in dead wild vultures. Another NSAID, meloxicam, has been shown to be safe to vultures. From 2012 to 2018, we undertook covert surveys of pharmacies in India, Nepal and Bangladesh to investigate the availability and prevalence of NSAIDs for the treatment of livestock. The purpose of the study was to establish whether diclofenac continued to be sold for veterinary use, whether the availability of meloxicam had increased and to determine which other veterinary NSAIDs were available. The availability of diclofenac declined in all three countries, virtually disappearing from pharmacies in Nepal and Bangladesh, highlighting the advances made in these two countries to reduce this threat to vultures. In India, diclofenac still accounted for 10–46% of all NSAIDs offered for sale for livestock treatment in 2017, suggesting weak enforcement of existing regulations and a continued high risk to vultures. Availability of meloxicam increased in all countries and was the most common veterinary NSAID in Nepal (89.9% in 2017). Although the most widely available NSAID in India in 2017, meloxicam accounted for only 32% of products offered for sale. In Bangladesh, meloxicam was less commonly available than the vulture-toxic NSAID ketoprofen (28% and 66%, respectively, in 2018), despite the partial government ban on ketoprofen in 2016. Eleven different NSAIDs were recorded, several of which are known or suspected to be toxic to vultures. Conservation priorities should include awareness raising, stricter implementation of current bans, bans on other vulture-toxic veterinary NSAIDs, especially aceclofenac and nimesulide, and safety-testing of other NSAIDs on Gyps vultures to identify safe and toxic drugs.
During and after the Crimean annexation in March 2014, Russia witnessed a huge increase in support for President Vladimir Putin (Hale, 2018). More importantly for events on the ground, however, this rally was not limited to changes in political approval: it extended to the mobilization of large numbers of volunteers, donors and sympathizers in support of military action outside the country’s borders. Both online and offline, a surge of activism was unleashed to strengthen, militarily and ideologically, the claim that Crimea and eastern Ukraine were somehow a natural part of Russia that had been accidentally and wrongly alienated by the idiosyncrasies of the collapse of the USSR (Matveeva, 2018). Two names that came to be adopted by the movement, “Russian Spring”/“Novorossiya,” reflect the intertwined ideas of a revival of ethnic Russian consciousness, the return of a previously dormant Russia back onto the international stage, and the tsarist-era basis of the Russian claim to much of what is today southern and eastern Ukraine.
Evidence from previous small trials has suggested the effectiveness of early social communication interventions for autism.
The Preschool Autism Communication Trial (PACT) investigated the efficacy of such an intervention in the largest psychosocial autism trial to date.
To provide a stringent test of a pre-school communication intervention for autism.
152 children with core autism aged 2 years - 4 years 11 months in a 3 site 2 arm single (assessor) blinded randomised controlled trial of the parent-mediated communication-focused intervention added to treatment as usual (TAU) against TAU alone. Primary outcome; severity of autism symptoms (modified social communication algorithm from Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic, ADOS-G). Secondary outcomes; blinded measures of parent-child interaction, child language, and adaptation in school.
At 13 month endpoint the treatment resulted in strong improvement in parental synchronous response to child (adjusted between-group effect size 1.22 (95% CI 0.85, 1.59) and child initiations with parent (ES 0.41 (0.08, 0.74) but small effect on autism symptomatology (ADOS-G, ES -0.24 (95% CI -0.59, 0.11) ns). Parents (not blind to allocation) reported strong treatment effects on child language and social adaptation but effects on blinded research assessed language and school adaptation were small.
Addition of the PACT intervention showed clear benefit in improving parent-child dyadic social communication but no substantive benefit over TAU in modifying objectively rated autism symptoms. This attenuation on generalisation from ‘proximal’ intervention effects to wider symptom change in other contexts remains a significant challenge for autism treatment and measurement methodology.