To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The Welfare Quality® (WQ) protocols are increasingly used for assessing welfare of farm animals. These protocols are time consuming (about one day per farm) and, therefore, costly. Our aim was to assess the scope for reduction of on-farm assessment time of the WQ protocol for dairy cattle. Seven trained observers quantified animal-based indicators of the WQ protocol in 181 loose-housed and 13 tied Dutch dairy herds (herd size from 10 to 211 cows). Four assessment methods were used: avoidance distance at the feeding rack (ADF, 44 min); qualitative behaviour assessment (QBA, 25 min); behavioural observations (BO, 150 min); and clinical observations (CO, 132 min). To simulate reduction of on-farm assessment time, a set of WQ indicators belonging to one assessment method was omitted from the protocol. Observed values of omitted indicators were replaced by predictions based on WQ indicators of the remaining three assessment methods, resources checklist, and interview, thus mimicking the performance of the full WQ protocol. Agreement between predicted and observed values of WQ indicators, however, was low for ADF, moderate for QBA, slight to moderate for BO, and poor to moderate for CO. It was concluded that replacing animal-based WQ indicators by predictions based on remaining WQ indicators shows little scope for reduction of on-farm assessment time of the Welfare Quality® protocol for dairy cattle. Other ways to reduce on-farm assessment time of the WQ protocol for dairy cattle, such as the use of additional data or automated monitoring systems, should be investigated.
We summarize some of the past year's most important findings within climate change-related research. New research has improved our understanding about the remaining options to achieve the Paris Agreement goals, through overcoming political barriers to carbon pricing, taking into account non-CO2 factors, a well-designed implementation of demand-side and nature-based solutions, resilience building of ecosystems and the recognition that climate change mitigation costs can be justified by benefits to the health of humans and nature alone. We consider new insights about what to expect if we fail to include a new dimension of fire extremes and the prospect of cascading climate tipping elements.
A synthesis is made of 10 topics within climate research, where there have been significant advances since January 2020. The insights are based on input from an international open call with broad disciplinary scope. Findings include: (1) the options to still keep global warming below 1.5 °C; (2) the impact of non-CO2 factors in global warming; (3) a new dimension of fire extremes forced by climate change; (4) the increasing pressure on interconnected climate tipping elements; (5) the dimensions of climate justice; (6) political challenges impeding the effectiveness of carbon pricing; (7) demand-side solutions as vehicles of climate mitigation; (8) the potentials and caveats of nature-based solutions; (9) how building resilience of marine ecosystems is possible; and (10) that the costs of climate change mitigation policies can be more than justified by the benefits to the health of humans and nature.
Social media summary
How do we limit global warming to 1.5 °C and why is it crucial? See highlights of latest climate science.
In different parts of the world, aphid populations and their natural enemies are influenced by landscapes and climate. In the Neotropical region, few long-term studies have been conducted, maintaining a gap for comprehension of the effect of meteorological variables on aphid population patterns and their parasitoids in field conditions. This study describes the general patterns of oscillation in cereal winged aphids and their parasitoids, selecting meteorological variables and evaluating their effects on these insects. Aphids exhibit two annual peaks, one in summer–fall transition and the other in winter-spring transition. For parasitoids, the highest annual peak takes place during winter and a second peak occurs in winter–spring transition. Temperature was the principal meteorological regulator of population fluctuation in winged aphids and parasitoids during the year. The favorable temperature range is not the same for aphids and parasitoids. For aphids, temperature increase resulted in population growth, with maximum positive effect at 25°C. Temperature also positively influenced parasitoid populations, but the growth was asymptotic around 20°C. Although rainfall showed no regulatory function on aphid seasonality, it influenced the final number of insects over the year. The response of aphids and parasitoids to temperature has implications for trophic compatibility and regulation of their populations. Such functions should be taken into account in predictive models.
The high cognitive abilities named executive functions (EF) are responsible for emotional regulation and for goal-oriented behavior. EF are frequently disrupted in anxiety disorders and negatively affect daily function and quality of life (QoL). Nevertheless, EF evaluation is usually performed in the laboratory using neuro-psychological assessments that refer to specific components (such as working memory, inhibition), but lacks a comprehensive profile of EF and the expressions in real life context.
To elaborate the knowledge about EF in daily life of children/youth with psychiatric disorders, by comparing their EF to those of healthy controls, using an ecological measure that imitates daily life scenarios; To examine the relationship between EF and QoL in the study group.
Participants were 49 children and youth aged 8-18 years: 25 subjects with psychiatric (mainly anxiety) disorders and 24 healthy controls. The children’s parents completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to profile emotional difficulties; The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF) which examines EF components related to meta-cognition and behavioral regulation; and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (Peds-QoL).
The study group had more EF difficulties [reduced behavioral regulation (F=31.81; p<.001) and metacognition (F=26.25; p<.001)], and lower QoL. In the study group, EF difficulties correlated with reduced physical, emotional, social, and school-related
EF should be evaluated in children/youth with psychiatric disorders, by ecological evaluation that reflect the difficulties in daily life. This may focus intervention on child’s specific needs and improve the outcomes in terms of better function, development and QoL.
While negative affect reliably predicts binge eating, it is unknown how this association may decrease or ‘de-couple’ during treatment for binge eating disorder (BED), whether such change is greater in treatments targeting emotion regulation, or how such change predicts outcome. This study utilized multi-wave ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to assess changes in the momentary association between negative affect and subsequent binge-eating symptoms during Integrative Cognitive Affective Therapy (ICAT-BED) and Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help (CBTgsh). It was predicted that there would be stronger de-coupling effects in ICAT-BED compared to CBTgsh given the focus on emotion regulation skills in ICAT-BED and that greater de-coupling would predict outcomes.
Adults with BED were randomized to ICAT-BED or CBTgsh and completed 1-week EMA protocols and the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) at pre-treatment, end-of-treatment, and 6-month follow-up (final N = 78). De-coupling was operationalized as a change in momentary associations between negative affect and binge-eating symptoms from pre-treatment to end-of-treatment.
There was a significant de-coupling effect at follow-up but not end-of-treatment, and de-coupling did not differ between ICAT-BED and CBTgsh. Less de-coupling was associated with higher end-of-treatment EDE global scores at end-of-treatment and higher binge frequency at follow-up.
Both ICAT-BED and CBTgsh were associated with de-coupling of momentary negative affect and binge-eating symptoms, which in turn relate to cognitive and behavioral treatment outcomes. Future research is warranted to identify differential mechanisms of change across ICAT-BED and CBTgsh. Results also highlight the importance of developing momentary interventions to more effectively de-couple negative affect and binge eating.
There is evidence that, besides limbic brain structures, prefrontal and insular cortical activations and deactivations are involved in the pathophysiology of panic disorder.
Objectives and aims
Using fMRI, this study investigated BOLD response patterns to stimulation with individually selected panic-specific pictures in patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) and healthy controls. Structures of interest were the prefrontal, cingulate, and insular cortex, and the amygdalo-hippocampal complex.
21 PDA subjects (12 female, 9 male) and 21 matched controls were investigated using a Siemens 3 T scanner. Before, PDA subjects gave ratings on 120 pictures showing characteristic panic/agoraphobia situations (PA). 20 pictures with the individually highest ratings were selected. 20 matching pictures showing aversive but not panic-specific stimuli (A) and 80 neutral pictures (N) from the International Affective Picture-System (IAPS) were chosen for each subject. Anxiety and depression ratings were recorded.
Group comparisons revealed a significantly greater BOLD response in PDA subjects than in controls in the insular cortices, left inferior frontal gyrus, dmPFC, the left hippocampal formation, and left caudatum (p < .005), when PA and N responses were compared. Group comparisons for stimulation with A compared to PA showed activation of similar brain regions in both groups but with different peak coordinates.
Results indicate specific activation patterns to panic-specific picture stimulation in PDA patients. Distinct peak coordinates between PA and A differ between groups. This might implicate that the brain circuits underlying processing of aversive stimuli might differ in their function in PDA patients compared to healthy subjects.
Major affective disorders ranging from subthreshold affective temperaments to severe affective diseases and anxiety, are frequently associated with sleep–wake dysregulation. Interestingly, recent studies suggested an active role of Sensory Processing Disorders (SPD) in the emergence of sleep disturbances.
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between SPD and sleep quality in subjects with major affective disorders and specific affective temperaments.
This study aimed to examine the sensory profile (expressed in hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity) of patients with major affective disorders and its relative contribution to the prediction of sleep quality while also considering affective temperaments and depression, known as factors that may impact sleep quality.
We recruited 176 participants (mean age = 47.3) of which 56.8% have unipolar depression and 43.2% bipolar disorder. Reduced sleep quality was evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) whereas affective temperaments were assessed using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS).
Sensory hypersensitivity, assessed using Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP), significantly distinguished between poor and good sleepers. Sleep quality was mainly predicted by the Beck Depression Inventory-II total score and anxious temperament. Yet, sensory hypersensitivity contributed to this prediction mainly in regard to sleep efficiency and related daytime dysfunctions.
The careful assessment of the unique sensory profile and its behavioral/functional influence on patients’ quality of life may help clinicians and health providers in developing targeted treatment interventions.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Several studies suggested the involvement of sensory perception in emotional processes and major affective disorders. Similarly, cognitive capacities and coping strategies are reported to influence quality of life of patients with unipolar and bipolar disorders.
The main objective of this study was to investigate the nature of the association between sensory processing patterns, coping strategies, and quality of life among patients with major affective disorders.
The study aimed to compare unipolar/bipolar patients concerning sensory processing, coping strategies and quality of life (QOL); examine correlations between sensory processing and QOL; investigate the relative contribution of socio-demographic characteristics, sensory processing, and coping strategies to the prediction of QOL.
Two hundred and sixty-seven participants, aged 16–85 years (mean = 53.6 ± 15.7), 157 diagnosed with unipolar major depressive disorder and 110 with bipolar disorder type I and type II completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile, Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced, and Short Form 12 Health Survey 2.
The unipolar and bipolar groups did not differ concerning sensory processing, coping strategies, and QOL. Sensory processing patterns correlated with QOL independently of the mediation by coping strategies. Correlations between low registration, sensory sensitivity, sensation avoidance, and reduced QOL were found more frequently in unipolar patients than bipolar patients. Elevated physical QOL was mainly predicted by lower age and lower sensory sensitivity whereas elevated mental QOL was mainly predicted by coping strategies.
Future studies should further investigate the impact of sensory processing and coping strategies on patients’ QOL to enhance adaptive and functional behaviors related to affective disturbances.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Longer duration of untreated illness, longer duration of current episode, and severity of medication side effects may negatively influence the psychosocial functioning in major affective and anxiety disorders. Studies also suggested the involvement of sensory perception in emotional and psychopathological processes.
The objective of this study is to investigate the nature of the association between duration of untreated illness, duration of current episode, and severity of medication side effects.
The study is aimed to examine the relationship between sensory processing disorders (SPD), duration of untreated illness, duration of current illness episode, and the severity of side effects related to psychoactive medications.
The sample included 178 participants with an age ranging from 17 to 85 years (mean = 53.84 ± 15.55); psychiatric diagnoses were as follow: unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD) (50%), bipolar disorder (BD) (33.7%), and anxiety disorders (16.3%). subjects completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser (UKU), and Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP) questionnaire.
Longer duration of current episode correlated with greater registration of sensory input and lower avoidance from sensory input among unipolar patients, lower registration of sensory input, and higher tendency for sensory sensitivity/sensation avoidance among bipolar participants. In addition? longer duration of current episode correlated with lower sensory sensitivity/avoidance among anxiety participants, respectively. Mean UKU total scores were associated with lower sensory sensitivity among bipolar individuals as well.
SPD expressed in either hypo-/hypersensitivity may be used to clinically characterize subjects with major affective and anxiety disorders.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are the most frequently used observer-rated and self-report scales of depression, respectively. It is important to know what a given total score or a change score from baseline on one scale means in relation to the other scale.
We obtained individual participant data from the randomised controlled trials of psychological and pharmacological treatments for major depressive disorders. We then identified corresponding scores of the HAMD and the BDI (369 patients from seven trials) or the BDI-II (683 patients from another seven trials) using the equipercentile linking method.
The HAMD total scores of 10, 20 and 30 corresponded approximately with the BDI scores of 10, 27 and 42 or with the BDI-II scores of 13, 32 and 50. The HAMD change scores of −20 and −10 with the BDI of −29 and −15 and with the BDI-II of −35 and −16.
The results can help clinicians interpret the HAMD or BDI scores of their patients in a more versatile manner and also help clinicians and researchers evaluate such scores reported in the literature or the database, when scores on only one of these scales are provided. We present a conversion table for future research.
We present ALMA band 7 data of the extreme OH/IR star, OH 26.5+0.6. In addition to lines of CO and its isotopologues, the circumstellar envelope also exhibits a number of emission lines due to metal-containing molecules, e.g., NaCl and KCl. A lack of C18O is expected, but a non-detection of C17O is puzzling given the strengths of H217O in Herschel spectra of the star. However, a line associated with Si17O is detected. We also report a tentative detection of a gas-phase emission line of MgS. The ALMA spectrum of this object reveals intriguing features which may be used to investigate chemical processes and dust formation during a high mass-loss phase.
We introduce the newly developed database of circumstellar maser sources. Until now, the compilations comprehensively including the three major maser species in evolved stars (i.e., SiO, H2O, OH) has been practically limited only to the Benson’s catalog (Benson et al. 1990), which was published more than a quarter of a century ago. For OH masers alone, there exists the University of Hamburg (UH) database, but there is no updated compilation work for H2O and SiO masers. In order to utilize the information of masers in actual studies, it is highly desirable to have a database containing all the three masers. We are currently constructing a database covering SiO, H2O and OH masers. This database consists of a web-service, which accesses compiled maser observations in available archives and combines them with the data we newly collected and IR databases. The archives currently used are the OH maser archive from Engels & Bunzel (2015), and H2O and SiO archives, which are currently under construction. So far, the information of about 27,000 observations (about 10,000 objects) has been implemented. We also have a plan to extend the database by including higher transitions and other types of objects, such as young stellar objects, in future. In this paper, we briefly summarize, (1) outline of the data collected, and (2) future development plans of the eDAMS system. The URL of the database is as follows: http://maserdb.ins.urfu.ru/
Stereotypies are used as indicators of poor animal welfare and it is, therefore, important to understand underlying factors mediating their development. In calves, two oral stereotypies, that is, tongue playing and object manipulation, result mostly from insufficient structure in the diet. Three hypotheses were studied: (1) oral stereotypies in calves are one of two alternative strategies, the alternative being hypo-activity; (2) stereotyping and non-stereotyping calves differ in terms of cortisol secretion; (3) oral stereotypy development in calves rests on a gene by environment interaction. Eight-week-old bull calves (n=48) were assigned to one of four solid feed allowances (0, 9, 18 or 27 g dry matter/kg metabolic weight per day) with the following composition: 50% concentrate, 25% maize silage and 25% straw on dry matter basis. The calves received milk replacer in buckets, the provision of which was adjusted to achieve equal growth rates. At 14 to 18 weeks of age, calves were exposed to a challenge, that is, tethering inside cages. Oral stereotypies and inactivity were recorded in the home pens in the 4 weeks before the challenge using instantaneous scan sampling. Salivary cortisol levels were measured at −120, +40, +80, +120 min and +48 h relative to the challenge. Individual differences in behaviour were recorded in the first 30 min after challenge implementation using focal animal sampling and continuous recording, and these elements were entered into a principal component (PC) analysis to extract PCs. Regression analyses were performed to find relationships between stereotypies and inactivity, stereotypies and cortisol, and stereotypies and PCs (individual differences, genes) and solid feed (environment). Relationships between PCs and cortisol were also investigated to help with the interpretation of PCs. Hypotheses 1 and 2 were rejected. Hypothesis 3, however, was supported: calves with a zero solid feed allowance, that is, in the most barren environment, showed links between stereotypies and two of the PCs. Calves that displayed high levels of idle and rapid locomotion and low levels of oral contact with the cage during the challenge also displayed high levels of object manipulation in the home pens. Calves that displayed low levels of stepping and turning attempts during the challenge also displayed high levels of tongue playing in the home pens. This study corroborates the gene by environment interaction on the development of oral stereotypies in calves.
Welfare Quality® (WQ) assessment protocols place the emphasis on animal-based measures as an indicator for animal welfare. Stakeholders, however, emphasize that a reduction in the time taken to complete the protocol is essential to improve practical applicability. We studied the potential for reduction in time to complete the WQ broiler assessment protocol and present some modifications to the protocol correcting a few errors in the original calculations. Data was used from 180 flocks assessed on-farm and 150 flocks assessed at the slaughter plant. Correlations between variables were calculated, and where correlation was moderate, meaningful and promising (in terms of time reduction), simplification was considered using one variable predicted from another variable. Correlation analysis revealed a promising correlation between severe hock burn and gait scores on-farm. Therefore, prediction of gait scores using hock burn scores was studied further as a possible simplification strategy (strategy 1). Measurements of footpad dermatitis, hock burn, cleanliness and gait score on-farm correlated moderately to highly with slaughter plant measurements of footpad dermatitis and/or hock burn, supporting substitution of on-farm measurements with slaughter plant data. A simplification analysis was performed using footpad dermatitis, hock burn, cleanliness and gait scores measured on-farm predicted from slaughter plant measurements of footpad dermatitis and hock burn (strategy 2). Simplification strategies were compared with the full assessment protocol. Close agreement was found between the full protocol and both simplification strategies although large confidence intervals were found for specificity of the simplified models. It is concluded that the proposed simplification strategies are encouraging; strategy 1 can reduce the time to complete the on-farm assessment by ~1 h (25% to 33% reduction) and strategy 2 can reduce on-farm assessment time by ~2 h (50% to 67% reduction). Both simplification strategies should, however, be validated further, and tested on farms with a wide distribution across the different welfare categories of WQ.
Recent progress in science and technology has led to the revival of an old question concerning the relevance of quantum effects in biological systems. Indeed Pascual Jordan's 1943 book, Die Physik und das Geheimnis des Lebens had already posed the question “Sind die Gesetze der Atomphysik und Quantenphysik für die Lebensvorgänge von wesentlicher Bedeutung?” (Are the laws of atomic and quantum physics of essential importance for life?) and coined the term Quanten-Biologie (quantum biology). At the time this question was essentially of a theoretical nature as the technology did not yet exist to pursue it in experiment.
Indeed quantum biology has been benefiting considerably from the refinement in experimental tools which is beginning to provide direct access to the observation of quantum dynamics in biological systems. Indeed, we are increasingly gaining sensitivity towards quantum phenomena at short lengths and timescales. In recent years, these newly found technological capabilities have helped to elevate the study of quantum biology from a mainly theoretical endeavour to a field in which theoretical questions, concepts and hypotheses may be tested experimentally and thus verified or disproved. We should stress here that experiments are essential to verify theoretical models because biological systems already have a complexity and structural variety that prevents us from knowing and controlling all of the aspects. Results obtained using these refined experimental techniques lead to new theoretical challenges and thus stimulate the development of novel theoretical approaches. It is this mutually beneficial interplay between experiment and theory that promises accelerated developments within the field.