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Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
UK trees require increased conservation efforts due to sparse and fragmented populations. Ex situ conservation, including seed banking, can be used to better manage these issues. We conducted accelerated ageing tests on seeds of 22 UK native woody species, in order to assess their likely longevity and optimize their conservation in a seed bank. Germination at four ageing time points was determined to construct survival curves, and it was concluded that multiple samples within a species showed comparable responses for most species tested, except for Fraxinus excelsior. Of all species studied, one could be classified as very short-lived, four as short-lived and 17 as medium, with none exceeding the medium category. The most important finding of this manuscript is that although some taxonomic trends were observed, the results indicate the need for caution when making broad conclusions on potential seed storage life at a species, genus or family level. Longevity predictions were compared to actual performance of older collections held in long-term storage at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew. Although most collections remain high in viability in storage after more than 20 years, for short-lived species at least, there is some indication that accelerated ageing predicts longevity in seed bank conditions. For species with reduced potential longevity, such as Fagus sylvatica and Ulmus glabra, additional storage options are recommended for long-term gene banking.
Introduction: Prognostication and disposition among older Emergency Department (ED) patients with suspected infection remains challenging. Frailty is increasingly recognized as a predictor of poor prognosis among critically ill patients, however its association with clinical outcomes among older ED patients with suspected infection is unknown. Methods: We conducted a multicentre prospective cohort study at two tertiary care EDs. We included older ED patients (≥ 75 years) presenting with suspected infection. Frailty at baseline (prior to index illness) was explicitly measured for all patients by the treating physicians using the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). We defined frailty as a CFS 5-8. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. We used multivariable logistic regression to adjust for known confounders. We also compared the prognostic accuracy of frailty against the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) and Quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) criteria. Results: We enrolled 203 patients, of whom 117 (57.6%) were frail. Frail patients were more likely to develop septic shock (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.83, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-2.51) and more likely to die within 30 days of ED presentation (aOR 2.05, 95% CI: 1.02-5.24). Sensitivity for mortality was highest among the CFS (73.1%, 95% CI: 52.2-88.4), as compared to SIRS ≥ 2 (65.4%, 95% CI: 44.3-82.8) or qSOFA ≥ 2 (38.4, 95% CI: 20.2-59.4). Conclusion: Frailty is a highly prevalent prognostic factor that can be used to risk-stratify older ED patients with suspected infection. ED clinicians should consider screening for frailty in order to optimize disposition in this population.
Public hospital systems have struggled to identify ways of cutting costs while improving quality of mental health treatment, even more since the economic downturn.
To compare mental health care expenditures and quality in two large sites, Boston and Madrid, and to analyze the amount of the expenditure corresponding to pharmacy, ER, outpatient and inpatient care.
Data are mental health electronic records from three hospitals in Madrid (n=31,183 person-years) and in Boston(n=8,805). Adequacy of care was measured as four or more visits within the last year. Unadjusted comparisons of variables were conducted using t-tests. Multivariate generalized linear regression models were computed with log link and residual variance proportional to mean squared, adjusting for covariates. Results were also adjusted for World Bank Purchasing Power Parity and converted to U.S. dollars.
The annual average treatment expenditure is $4,874 in Boston and $2,693 in Madrid . Boston patients had a bigger percentage of use (13,6% vs 5,3%) and greater annual expenditure ($25,175 vs $15,470) for inpatient services (p<0,05). Conversely, Madrid patients used and spent more on outpatient treatments (87% vs 84%;$1,670 vs $1,378;p<0,05). Being in the Boston site, having a bipolar, psychotic or alcohol disorder was a significant positive predictor of total expenditure. Adequacy of care was bigger in Boston (32,8% vs 23,1%)
Emphasis on outpatient care appears to reduce inpatient stays and global expenditures. An earlier recognition due to a more open access to treatments in Spain may help decreasing costs. Bipolar, psychotic and alcohol disorders imply bigger costs.
Prior studies have identified that individuals with comorbid substance use disorder and mental health disorder are at a greater risk of benzodiazepine abuse compared to individuals that present with mental health disorder without an accompanying substance use disorder. These studies were conducted in predominantly white populations, and little is known if the same associations are seen in safety net health care networks. Also, the literature is mixed as to whether or not psychiatrists’ prescription of benzodiazepines places individuals at undue risk of benzodiazepine abuse.
We use 2013–2015 electronic health record data from a Boston healthcare system. Patients with benzodiazapene abuse were identified if they had received treatment under the ICD-9 code 304.1. Benzodiazepine abuse was compared between patients with only mental illness and patients with existing comorbid substance and mental health disorder, in unadjusted comparisons and adjusted regression models. Covariates in regression models were used to identify subgroups at higher risk of benzodiazepine abuse.
Individuals with benzodiazepine abuse had higher rates of emergency room and inpatient use than patients with other mental health and/or substance use disorders. Those with comorbid substance and mental disorder were significantly more likely than individuals with mental or substance use disorder alone to abuse benzodiazepines (P < .01). Among those with benzodiazepine abuse, 93.3% were diagnosed with a mental illness, 75.6% were diagnosed with a substance use disorder (other than benzodiazepine), and 64.4% had comorbid anxiety disorder and substance use disorder. These analyses suggest that patients with benzodiazepine abuse have complex presentations and intensive service use.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Chronic non-malignant pain (CNMP) is defined as pain lasting a minimum of three months. In general, chronic pain affects 20% adult worldwide population. Moreover, pain is more common in patients with depression, anxiety, and substance-use disorders and with low socioeconomic status. We aimed to better understand the influence of pain on substance use and treatment use patterns of individuals who experienced clinically recognized pain and have substance use disorder.
Patients with pain disturbances were identified in Electronic Health Records (EHR) through ICD-9 code 338*, medical written diagnoses, or diagnoses of fibromyalgia. A patient was considered to have a substance use disorder if he received treatment for illicit drug or alcohol abuse or dependence. We combined 2010–2012 (EHR) data from primary care and specialty mental health setting in a Boston healthcare system (n = 131,966 person-years) and a specialty mental health care setting in Madrid, Spain (n = 43,309 person-years).
We identified that 35.3% of individuals with clinically recognized pain also report substance use disorder, compared to only 10.6% of individuals without clinically recognized pain (P < 0.01). Those with co-morbid pain and substance use disorder were significantly more likely than their specialty care counterparts without co-morbid pain and substance disorders to be seen in the emergency room (56.5% vs. 36.6%, respectively, P < 0.01).
The findings suggest that CNMP is associated with an increase risk of substance abuse disorder.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
US Latinos have higher rates of substance use disorders (SUDs) than Latinas, but Latinas face substantial barriers to treatment and tend to enter care with higher SUD severity. Immigrant Latinas may face greater barriers to care than native-born despite lower overall SUD prevalence. This study aimed to identify how SUD treatment needs of Latinos are addressed depending on patient gender and immigrant status within an urban healthcare system serving a diverse population.
Data from electronic health records of adult Latino/a primary care patients (n = 29,887 person-years) were used to identify rates of SUD treatment in primary and specialty care. Treatment characteristics and receipt of adequate care were compared by gender and immigrant status.
Tobacco was the most frequently treated substance followed by alcohol and other drugs. Forty-six percent of SUD patients had a comorbid psychiatric condition. Treatment rates ranged from 2.52% (female non-immigrants) to 8.38% (male immigrants). Women had lower treatment rates than men, but male and female immigrants had significantly higher treatment rates than their non-immigrant counterparts. Receipt of minimally adequate outpatient care varied significantly by gender and immigrant status (female non-immigrants 12.5%, immigrants 28.57%; male non-immigrants 13.46%, immigrants 17.09%) in unadjusted and adjusted analyses.
Results indicate overall low prevalence of SUD treatment in the healthcare system. Low rates of minimally adequate care evidence the challenge of delivering integrated behavioral healthcare for Latinos with SUD. Results also demonstrate gender and immigrant status disparities in an unexpected direction, with immigrant women receiving the highest rates of adequate care.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
There is no comprehensive evidence on the influence of sleep disturbances (SD) on substance use disorders (SUD) or treatment use patterns of individuals with comorbid disturbances.
To better understand comorbidities and treatment use patterns of individuals with SD and SUD.
We combine 2010–2012 electronic health record (EHR) data from healthcare system in Boston (n = 131,966 person-years) and Madrid, Spain (n = 43,309 person-years). Patients with sleep disturbances (SD) were identified in the EHR through ICD-9 codes and medical records and substance use disorders (SUD) identified by documented treatment for drug or alcohol abuse or dependence. Rates of SUD are compared between individuals with and without SD. Among those with both, adequacy of mental health treatment (defined as eight or more outpatient visits or four or more outpatient visits with a psychotropic prescription) and ER use is compared.
Among the individuals, 21.1% with SD also report SUD, compared to only 10.6% of individuals without SD (P < .01). Those with comorbidities were more likely than their specialty care counterparts without comorbidities to be seen in the ER (57.1% vs. 36.6%, respectively, P < .05). Limiting the sample to only those with both SD and SUD in specialty mental health care (n = 268 in Boston and n = 28 in Madrid), 49.2% of Boston patients received adequate care compared to 38.5% of Madrid patients, and 57.8% of Boston patients had any ER use in the last year vs. 50% of Madrid patients.
SD is correlated with SUD and comorbid patients are more likely to use emergency services.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Yukon Territory (YT) is a remote region in northern Canada with ongoing spread of tuberculosis (TB). To explore the utility of whole genome sequencing (WGS) for TB surveillance and monitoring in a setting with detailed contact tracing and interview data, we used a mixed-methods approach. Our analysis included all culture-confirmed cases in YT (2005–2014) and incorporated data from 24-locus Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR) genotyping, WGS and contact tracing. We compared field-based (contact investigation (CI) data + MIRU-VNTR) and genomic-based (WGS + MIRU-VNTR + basic case data) investigations to identify the most likely source of each person's TB and assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of programme personnel around genotyping and genomics using online, multiple-choice surveys (n = 4) and an in-person group interview (n = 5). Field- and genomics-based approaches agreed for 26 of 32 (81%) cases on likely location of TB acquisition. There was less agreement in the identification of specific source cases (13/22 or 59% of cases). Single-locus MIRU-VNTR variants and limited genetic diversity complicated the analysis. Qualitative data indicated that participants viewed genomic epidemiology as a useful tool to streamline investigations, particularly in differentiating latent TB reactivation from the recent transmission. Based on this, genomic data could be used to enhance CIs, focus resources, target interventions and aid in TB programme evaluation.
The bovine appeasing substance (BAS) is expected to have calming effects in cattle experiencing stressful situations. Therefore, this study investigated the impacts of BAS administration during two of the most stressful events within beef production systems: weaning and feedlot entry. In experiment 1, 186 Bos indicus-influenced calves (73 heifers, 113 bulls) were weaned at 211 ± 1 days of age (day 0). At weaning, calves were ranked by sex and BW, and assigned to receive BAS (Nutricorp, Araras, SP, Brazil; n = 94) or water (CON; n = 92). Treatments (5 ml) were topically applied to the nuchal skin area of each animal. Calf BW was recorded and samples of blood and tail-switch hair were collected on days 0, 15 and 45. Calves that received BAS had greater (P < 0.01) BW gain from day 0 to 15 compared with CON. Overall BW gain (days 0 to 45) and BW on days 15 and 45 were also greater (P ≤ 0.03) in BAS v. CON. Plasma haptoglobin concentration was less (P < 0.01) in BAS v. CON on day 15, whereas cortisol concentrations in plasma and tail-switch hair did not differ between treatments (P ≥ 0.13). In experiment 2, 140 B. indicus-influenced bulls (∼27 months of age) from 2 different pasture-based systems (70 bulls/origin) were transported to a commercial feedlot (≤ 200-km transport; day -1). On day 0, bulls were ranked by source and BW, and assigned to receive BAS (n = 70) or CON (n = 70) and the same sampling procedures as in experiment 1. Bulls receiving BAS had greater (P = 0.04) BW gain from day 0 to 15, but less (P < 0.01) BW gain from day 15 to 45 compared to CON. No other treatment effects were detected (P > 0.14). Therefore, BAS administration to beef calves alleviated the haptoglobin response associated with weaning, and improved calf growth during the subsequent 45 days. Administration of BAS to beef bulls at feedlot entry improved BW gain during the initial 15 days, but these benefits were not sustained throughout the 45-day experiment.
Few studies have used genomic epidemiology to understand tuberculosis (TB) transmission in rural and remote settings – regions often unique in history, geography and demographics. To improve our understanding of TB transmission dynamics in Yukon Territory (YT), a circumpolar Canadian territory, we conducted a retrospective analysis in which we combined epidemiological data collected through routine contact investigations with clinical and laboratory results. Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from all culture-confirmed TB cases in YT (2005–2014) were genotyped using 24-locus Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR) and compared to each other and to those from the neighbouring province of British Columbia (BC). Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of genotypically clustered isolates revealed three sustained transmission networks within YT, two of which also involved BC isolates. While each network had distinct characteristics, all had at least one individual acting as the probable source of three or more culture-positive cases. Overall, WGS revealed that TB transmission dynamics in YT are distinct from patterns of spread in other, more remote Northern Canadian regions, and that the combination of WGS and epidemiological data can provide actionable information to local public health teams.
For Brunei Darussalam, 2015 was primarily about the dilemma of maintaining domestic stability in the face of significant regional and global instability in areas of particular vulnerability for Southeast Asia's smallest country. Plummeting global energy prices saw the country's once extremely large current account surplus reverse into a large deficit. At the same time, as the smallest and weakest claimant in the South China Sea, Brunei has the fewest means to counter the effects of growing Chinese assertiveness, U.S.–China rivalry, and ASEAN ineffectiveness in relation to these disputed waters that lap on to the shores of the Sultanate. Aided by significant long-standing financial, political and diplomatic reserves, Brunei Darussalam was able to maintain an impressive level of social, political and diplomatic stability in these challenging times. On the economic and diplomatic fronts, Bandar Seri Begawan responded by enhancing existing relations and assets and seeking greater diversification. On the social and political fronts, the response was one of greater conservatism and centralization. As Brunei Darussalam's economic problems are significant and structural, the responses will have to pass the test of time for the country to overcome them.
More than Headwinds
Even a cursory glance at Table 1 shows how dramatically the Brunei economy was affected by falling energy prices. And yet, the growth estimates for 2015 are based on inflated price assumptions for both oil and liquefied natural gas, so the reality will likely be even worse. Likewise, current market movements suggest that the IMF price assumptions going forward err on the side of optimism.
The Sultan, His Majesty Haji Hassanal Bolkiah, is well aware that the country's hydrocarbon resources will eventually expire, possibly as early as 2025, and has tried to extend their life in recent years by capping production. The volume of oil production reportedly is now a full 40 per cent less than in 2006.1 In 2015 the scheduled and unscheduled maintenance of some of the most important energy projects has further hit production. However, the short-term costs of the policy have been exacerbated by the global collapse in the value of hydrocarbons with the price of crude oil having fallen from above US$100 in mid-2014 to less than US$30 per barrel by January 2016 and the value of natural gas per million Btu (British Thermal Unit) having fallen from over US$6 to nearly US$2 during the same period.
Excitable temperament disrupts physiological events required for reproductive development in cattle, but no research has investigated the impacts of temperament on growth and puberty attainment in Bos indicus females. Hence, this experiment evaluated the effects of temperament on growth, plasma cortisol concentrations and puberty attainment in B. indicus heifers. A total of 170 Nelore heifers, weaned 4 months before the beginning of this experiment (days 0 to 91), were managed in two groups of 82 and 88 heifers each (mean ± SE; initial BW=238±2 kg, initial age=369±1 days across groups). Heifer temperament was evaluated via exit velocity on day 0. Individual exit score was calculated within each group by dividing exit velocity into quintiles and assigning heifers with a score from 1 to 5 (1=slowest; 5=fastest heifer). Heifers were classified according to exit score as adequate (ADQ, n=96; exit score⩽3) or excitable temperament (EXC, n=74; exit score>3). Heifer BW, body condition score (BCS) and blood samples were obtained on days 0, 31, 60 and 91. Heifer exit velocity and score were recorded again on days 31, 60 and 91. Ovarian transrectal ultrasonography was performed on days 0 and 10, 31 and 41, 60 and 70, 81 and 91 for puberty evaluation. Heifer was declared pubertal at the first 10-day interval in which a corpus luteum was detected. Exit velocity and exit score obtained on day 0 were correlated (r⩾0.64, P<0.01) with evaluations on days 31, 60 and 91. During the experiment, ADQ had greater (P<0.01) mean BCS and BW gain, and less (P<0.01) mean plasma cortisol concentration compared with EXC heifers. Temperament × time interactions were detected (P<0.01) for exit velocity and exit score, which were always greater (P<0.01) in EXC v. ADQ heifers. A temperament × time interaction was also detected (P=0.03) for puberty attainment, which was delayed in EXC v. ADQ heifers. At the end of the experiment, a greater (P<0.01) proportion of ADQ were pubertal compared with EXC heifers. In summary, B. indicus heifers classified as EXC had reduced growth, increased plasma cortisol concentrations and hindered puberty attainment compared to ADQ heifers. Moreover, exit velocity may serve as temperament selection criteria to optimize development of B. indicus replacement heifers.
We propose here a generalization of the problem addressed by the SHGH conjecture. The SHGH conjecture posits a solution to the question of how many conditions a general union
of fat points imposes on the complete linear system of curves in
of fixed degree
, in terms of the occurrence of certain rational curves in the base locus of the linear subsystem defined by
. As a first step towards a new theory, we show that rational curves play a similar role in a special case of a generalized problem, which asks how many conditions are imposed by a general union of fat points on linear subsystems defined by imposed base points. Moreover, motivated by work of Di Gennaro, Ilardi and Vallès and of Faenzi and Vallès, we relate our results to the failure of a strong Lefschetz property, and we give a Lefschetz-like criterion for Terao’s conjecture on the freeness of line arrangements.
Concentration data are reported for 18 trace elements in chalcopyrite from a suite of 53 samples from 15 different ore deposits obtained by laser-ablation inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Chalcopyrite is demonstrated to host a wide range of trace elements including Mn, Co, Zn, Ga, Se, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi. The concentration of some of these elements can be high (hundreds to thousands of ppm) but most are typically tens to hundreds of ppm. The ability of chalcopyrite to host trace elements generally increases in the absence of other co-crystallizing sulfides. In deposits in which the sulfide assemblage recrystallized during syn-metamorphic deformation, the concentrations of Sn and Ga in chalcopyrite will generally increase in the presence of co-recrystallizing sphalerite and/or galena, suggesting that chalcopyrite is the preferred host at higher temperatures and/or pressures. Trace-element concentrations in chalcopyrite typically show little variation at the sample scale, yet there is potential for significant variation between samples from any individual deposit. The Zn:Cd ratio in chalcopyrite shows some evidence of a systematic variation across the dataset, which depends, at least in part, on temperature of crystallization. Under constant physiochemical conditions the Cd:Zn ratios in co-crystallizing chalcopyrite and sphalerite are typically approximately equal. Any distinct difference in the Cd:Zn ratios in the two minerals, and/or a non-constant Cd:Zn ratio in chalcopyrite, may be an indication of varying physiochemical conditions during crystallization.
Chalcopyrite is generally a poor host for most elements considered harmful or unwanted in the smelting of Cu, suggesting it is rarely a significant contributor to the overall content of such elements in copper concentrates. The exceptions are Se and Hg which may be sufficiently enriched in chalcopyrite to exceed statutory limits and thus incur monetary penalties from a smelter.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
We obtained radiocarbon (14C) dates with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) of vascular plant samples and a charcoal sample collected from peat deposits near the prehistoric village site informally designated CR-03 on Carlisle Island in the Islands of Four Mountains group, Alaska, to determine the eruption age of the CR-02 tephra. A fine vitric ash erupted from Okmok caldera, Umnak Island (ca. 2 ka BP) was also discovered in the bog. The ages of the CR-02 tephra and Okmok II ash are estimated to be 1050 and 2000 cal BP, respectively. Because both tephras are distinctive and widespread, these are important chronostratigraphic markers for archaeological sites in this island group. The 14C dates obtained from this bog are 800 years younger than the dates of the charcoal fragments from cultural layers in the Unit 3 of prehistoric village site CR-02 (AMK-0003).
TAOS II is a next-generation occultation survey with the goal of measuring the size distribution of the small end of the Kuiper Belt (objects with diameters 0.5–30 km). Such objects have magnitudes r > 30, and are thus undetectable by direct imaging. The project will operate three telescopes at San Pedro Mártir Observatory in Baja California, México. Each telescope will be equipped with a custom-built camera comprised of a focal-plane array of CMOS imagers. The cameras will be capable of reading out image data from 10,000 stars at a cadence of 20 Hz. The telescopes will monitor the same set of stars simultaneously to search for coincident occultation detections, thus minimising the false-positive rate. This talk described the project, and reported on the progress of the development of the survey infrastructure.
We explore the properties of sound and human sound recognition as a means to enhance and accelerate visual-only data analysis methods. The aim of this work is to enable and improve the analysis of large data sets, data requiring rapid analysis, multi-dimensional data, and signal detection in data with low signal-to-noise ratio. We present a prototype tool, StarSound, to sonify data such as astronomical transient light curves, spectra, and power spectra. Stereophonic sound is used to ‘visualise’ and localise the data under examination, and 3-D sound is discussed in conjunction with virtual reality technology, as a means to enhance analysis efficiency and efficacy, including rapid data assessment and training machine learning software. In addition, we explore the use of higher-order harmonics as a means to examine simultaneously multi-dimensional data sets. Such an approach can allow the data to be interpreted in a holistic manner and facilitates the discovery of previously unseen connections and relationships. Furthermore, we exploit the capability of the human brain for selective or focused hearing that enables the identification of desired signals in noisy data, or amidst similar or more significant signals. Finally, we provide research examples that benefit directly from data sonification. The work presented here aims to help tackle the challenges of the upcoming era of Big Data and help optimise, speed up and expand aspects of data analysis requiring human interaction.