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Current first-line treatments for paediatric depression demonstrate mild-to-moderate effectiveness. This has spurred a growing body of literature on lifestyle recommendations pertaining to nutrition, sleep and exercise for treating paediatric depression.
Paediatric depression clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) were reviewed for quality and to catalogue recommendations on nutrition, sleep and exercise made by higher-quality CPGs.
Searches were conducted in Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and CINAHL, and grey literature CPGs databases for relevant CPGs. Eligible CPGs with a minimum or high-quality level, as determined by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation, Second Edition instrument, were included if they were (a) paediatric; (b) CPGs, practice parameter or consensus or expert committee recommendations; (c) for depression; (d) the latest version and (e) lifestyle recommendations for nutrition, sleep or exercise. Key information extracted included author(s), language, year of publication, country, the institutional body issuing the CPG, target disorder, age group, lifestyle recommendation and the methods used to determine CPG lifestyle recommendations.
Ten paediatric CPGs for depression with a minimum or high-quality level contained recommendations on nutrition, sleep or exercise. Lifestyle recommendations were predominately qualitative, with quantitative details only outlined in two CPGs for exercise. Most recommendations were brief general statements, with 50% lacking supporting evidence from the literature.
Interest in lifestyle interventions for treatment in child and youth depression is growing. However, current CPG lifestyle recommendations for nutrition, sleep or exercise are based on expert opinion rather than clinical trials.
Flavonoids have shown anti-hypertensive and anti-atherosclerotic properties: the impact of habitual flavonoid intake on vascular function, central haemodynamics and arterial stiffness may be important. We investigated the relationship between habitual flavonoid consumption and measures of central blood pressure and arterial stiffness. We performed cross-sectional analysis of 381 non-smoking healthy older adults (mean age 66·0 (sd 4·1) years; BMI, 26·4 (sd 4·41) kg/m2; 41 % male) recruited as part of the Australian Research Council Longevity Intervention study. Flavonoid intake (i.e. flavonols, flavones, flavanones, anthocyanins, isoflavones, flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, theaflavins/thearubigins and total consumption) was estimated from FFQ using the US Department of Agriculture food composition databases. Measures of central haemodynamics and arterial stiffness included systolic blood pressure (cSBP), diastolic blood pressure (cDBP), mean arterial pressure (cMAP) and augmentation index (cAIx). After adjusting for demographic and lifestyle confounders, each sd/d higher intake of anthocyanins ((sd 44·3) mg/d) was associated with significantly lower cDBP (−1·56 mmHg, 95 % CI −2·65, −0·48) and cMAP (−1·62 mmHg, 95 % CI −2·82, −0·41). Similarly, each sd/d higher intake of flavanones ((sd 19·5) mg/d) was associated with ~1 % lower cAIx (−0·93 %, 95 % CI −1·77, −0·09). These associations remained signiﬁcant after additional adjustment for (1) a dietary quality score and (2) other major nutrients that may affect blood pressure or arterial stiffness (i.e. Na, K, Ca, Mg, n-3, total protein and fibre). This study suggests a possible benefit of dietary anthocyanin and flavanone intake on central haemodynamics and arterial stiffness; these findings require corroboration in further research.
There is an association between anterior cerebral artery vessel asymmetry and anterior communicating artery aneurysm, presumably based on flow dynamics. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential relationship between aortic arch branching patterns and incidence of intracranial aneurysm.
This study included patients scanned over 1 year at our tertiary care center who underwent high-resolution imaging (computed tomography angiography or digital subtracted angiogram) of the head and neck arteries, aortic arch, and superior mediastinum. Exclusion criteria included patients with suboptimal images. Patient age, gender, aortic arch branching pattern, and the presence, location, and number of aneurysms were documented.
Among the 1082 patients analyzed, 250 (23%) patients had a variant aortic arch branching pattern, 22 (8.8%) of whom had aneurysms. There were 104 patients with 126 aneurysms, with majority of patients with normal aortic arch branching pattern (n = 82, 79%). The most common variant was a common origin of the left common carotid artery and brachiocephalic trunk with or without direct origin of the left vertebral artery. Twenty-two patients with aneurysms had an aberrant aortic arch (21%), compared to 232 patients without an aneurysm (24%). Fischer exact test showed no statistically significant difference between the incidence of aneurysm with different aortic arch variant groups (two-tailed p-value = 0.715).
To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the association between aortic arch branching patterns and incidence of intracranial aneurysm. No significant association was found between aortic arch branching pattern and the incidence of intracranial aneurysm.
The application of paraquat mixtures with residual herbicides before planting rice is a common treatment in Mississippi, and rice in proximity is susceptible to off-target movement of these applications. Four concurrent studies were conducted in Stoneville, MS, to characterize rice performance following exposure to a sublethal rate of paraquat, metribuzin, fomesafen, and cloransulam-methyl at different application timings. Herbicides were applied to rice at the growth stages of spiking to one-leaf (VEPOST), two- to three-leaf (EPOST), three- to four-leaf (MPOST), 7 d postflood (PFLD), and panicle differentiation (PD). Regardless of application timing, rice injury following exposure to paraquat was ≥45%. Delays in maturity were increased by 0.3 d d−1 following paraquat from emergence through PD. Dry weight, rough rice yield, panicle density, and germination were reduced by 18.7 g, 131.5 kg ha−1, 5.6 m−2, and 0.3%, respectively, per day from application of paraquat at emergence through PD. By 28 d after treatment (DAT), metribuzin injured rice 3% to 6%, and that injury did not translate into a yield reduction. Regardless of application timing, rice injury following fomesafen application ranged from 2% to 5% 28 DAT. Rice exposed to cloransulam-methyl EPOST exhibited the greatest root and foliar injury 21 DAT and 28 DAT, respectively. Additionally, when rice was exposed to cloransulam-methyl EPOST, yield was reduced to 6,540 kg ha−1 compared with a yield of 7,850 kg ha−1 from nontreated rice. Rice yield was negatively affected after paraquat was applied any time after rice emergence. However, applications of paraquat to rice at early reproductive growth stages reduced rough rice yield and seed germination the greatest. Application timing is crucial in determining severity of rice injury. Early-season injury to rice following paraquat application had less effect on yield compared with injury at later stages. Additionally, fields devoted to seed rice production are at risk for reduced seed germination if they are exposed to paraquat during early reproductive growth stages.
We evaluated the risk of patients contracting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during their hospital stay to inform the safety of hospitalization for a non–COVID-19 indication during this pandemic.
A case series of adult patients hospitalized for 2 or more nights from May 15 to June 15, 2020 at large tertiary-care hospital in the midwestern United States was reviewed. All patients were screened at admission with the severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. Selected adult patients were also tested by IgG serology. After dismissal, patients with negative serology and PCR at admission were asked to undergo repeat serologic testing at 14–21 days after discharge. The primary outcome was healthcare-associated COVID-19 defined as a new positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test on or after day 4 of hospital stay or within 7 days of hospital dismissal, or seroconversion in patients previously established as seronegative.
Of the 2,068 eligible adult patients, 1,778 (86.0%) completed admission PCR testing, while 1,339 (64.7%) also completed admission serology testing. Of the 1,310 (97.8%) who were both PCR and seronegative, 445 (34.0%) repeated postdischarge serology testing. No healthcare-associated COVID-19 cases were detected during the study period. Of 1,310 eligible PCR and seronegative adults, no patients tested PCR positive during hospital admission (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.0%–0.3%). Of the 445 (34.0%) who completed postdischarge serology testing, no patients seroconverted (0.0%; 95% CI, 0.0%–0.9%).
We found low likelihood of hospital-associated COVID-19 with strict adherence to universal masking, physical distancing, and hand hygiene along with limited visitors and screening of admissions with PCR.
Paleoperspectives of climate provide important information for understanding future climate, particularly in arid regions such as California, where water availability is uncertain from year to year. Here, we present a record from Barley Lake, California, focusing on the interval spanning the Younger Dryas (YD) to the early Holocene (EH), a period of acute and rapid global climate change. Twelve radiocarbon dates constrain the timing between 12.9 and 8.1 ka. We combine a variety of sediment analyses to infer changes in lake productivity, relative lake level, and runoff dynamics. In general, the lake is characterized by two states separated by a <200-year transition: (1) a variably deep, lower-productivity YD lake; and (2) a two-part variably shallow, higher-productivity EH lake. Inferred EH winter-precipitation runoff reveals dynamic multidecadal-to-centennial-scale variability, in agreement with the EH lake-level data. The Barley Lake archive captures both hemispheric and regional signals of climate change across the transition, suggesting a role for both ocean-atmosphere and insolation forcing. Our paleoperspective emphasizes California's sensitivity to climate change and how that change can generate abrupt shifts in limnological regimes.
Attentional bias to threat has been implicated as a cognitive mechanism in anxiety disorders for youth. Yet, prior studies documenting this bias have largely relied on a method with questionable reliability (i.e. dot-probe task) and small samples, few of which included adolescents. The current study sought to address such limitations by examining relations between anxiety – both clinically diagnosed and dimensionally rated – and attentional bias to threat.
The study included a community sample of adolescents and employed eye-tracking methodology intended to capture possible biases across the full range of both automatic (i.e. vigilance bias) and controlled attentional processes (i.e. avoidance bias, maintenance bias). We examined both dimensional anxiety (across the full sample; n = 215) and categorical anxiety in a subset case-control analysis (n = 100) as predictors of biases.
Findings indicated that participants with an anxiety disorder oriented more slowly to angry faces than matched controls. Results did not suggest a greater likelihood of initial orienting to angry faces among our participants with anxiety disorders or those with higher dimensional ratings of anxiety. Greater anxiety severity was associated with greater dwell time to neutral faces.
This is the largest study to date examining eye-tracking metrics of attention to threat among healthy and anxious youth. Findings did not support the notion that anxiety is characterized by heightened vigilance or avoidance/maintenance of attention to threat. All effects detected were extremely small. Links between attention to threat and anxiety among adolescents may be subtle and highly dependent on experimental task dimensions.
Benjamin B. Lahey was born in 1945 in the United States. He is the Irving B. Harris Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Chicago and was President of the International Society for Research in Child and Adolescent Psychopathology. He received the U.S. National Academy of Neuropsychology research prize for his work on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. He first conducted research on the effectiveness of behavior therapy with school children. He then created a reliable and valid assessment of psychological problems for large samples of children. He directed the American Psychiatric Association field trials on disruptive behavior disorders in children. With Rolf Loeber, he also created a longitudinal study of clinic-referred prepubertal boys with problems of hyperactivity and serious conduct problems: The Developmental Trends Study. He also created a large cohort of twins to study the genetic and environmental contributions to conduct disorder. Results led him and his colleagues to propose a hierarchical causal model of psychological problems in which he hypothesized a general factor of psychopathology that plays a central role. The key idea is that the causes and mechanisms of each dimension of psychological problems cannot be studied and understood separately; they are far too intertwined.
AU in days of therapy per 1,000 patient days and microbiologic data from 2015 and 2016 were collected from 26 hospitals. The prevalences of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were calculated and compared to the average prevalence of all hospitals in the network. This proportion was used to calculate the adjusted AU (a-AU) for various categories of antimicrobials. For example, a-AU of antipseudomonal β-lactams (APBL) was the AU of APBL divided by (prevalence of P. aeruginosa at that hospital divided by the average prevalence of P. aeruginosa). Hospitals were categorized by bed size and ranked by AU and a-AU, and the rankings were compared.
Most hospitals in 2015 and 2016, respectively, moved ≥2 positions in the ranking using a-AU of APBL (15 of 24, 63%; 22 of 26, 85%), carbapenems (14 of 23, 61%; 22 of 25; 88%), anti-MRSA agents (13 of 23, 57%; 18 of 26, 69%), and anti-VRE agents (18 of 24, 75%; 15 of 26, 58%). Use of a-AU resulted in a shift in quartile of hospital ranking for 50% of APBL agents, 57% of carbapenems, 35% of anti-MRSA agents, and 75% of anti-VRE agents in 2015 and 50% of APBL agents, 28% of carbapenems, 50% of anti-MRSA agents, and 58% of anti-VRE agents in 2016.
The a-AU considerably changes how hospitals compare among each other within a network. Adjusting AU by microbiological burden allows for a more balanced comparison among hospitals with variable baseline rates of resistant bacteria.
In this paper, we address how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted informed consent for clinical research through examining experiences within Clinical and Translation Science Award (CTSA) institutions. We begin with a brief overview of informed consent and the challenges that existed prior to COVID-19. Then, we discuss how informed consent processes were modified or changed to address the pandemic, consider what lessons were learned, and present research and policy steps to prepare for future research and public health crises. The experiences and challenges for CTSA institutions offer an important perspective for examining what we have learned about informed consent and determining the next steps for improving the consent process.
Achieving sub-picometer precision measurements of atomic column positions in high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscope images using nonrigid registration (NRR) and averaging of image series requires careful optimization of experimental conditions and the parameters of the registration algorithm. On experimental data from SrTiO3 , sub-pm precision requires alignment of the sample to the zone axis to within 1 mrad tilt and sample drift of less than 1 nm/min. At fixed total electron dose for the series, precision in the fast scan direction improves with shorter pixel dwell time to the limit of our microscope hardware, but the best precision along the slow scan direction occurs at 6 μs/px dwell time. Within the NRR algorithm, the “smoothness factor” that penalizes large estimated shifts is the most important parameter for sub-pm precision, but in general, the precision of NRR images is robust over a wide range of parameters.
Animal-derived dietary protein ingestion and physical activity stimulate myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in older adults. We determined whether a non-animal-derived diet can support daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates to the same extent as an omnivorous diet. Nineteen healthy older adults (aged 66 (sem 1) years; BMI 24 (sem 1) kg/m2; twelve males, seven females) participated in a randomised, parallel-group, controlled trial during which they consumed a 3-d isoenergetic high-protein (1·8 g/kg body mass per d) diet, where the protein was provided from predominantly (71 %) animal (OMNI; n 9; six males, three females) or exclusively vegan (VEG; n 10; six males, four females; mycoprotein providing 57 % of daily protein intake) sources. During the dietary control period, participants conducted a daily bout of unilateral resistance-type leg extension exercise. Before the dietary control period, participants ingested 400 ml of deuterated water, with 50-ml doses consumed daily thereafter. Saliva samples were collected throughout to determine body water 2H enrichments, and muscle samples were collected from rested and exercised muscle to determine daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates. Deuterated water dosing resulted in body water 2H enrichments of approximately 0·78 (sem 0·03) %. Daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates were 13 (sem 8) (P = 0·169) and 12 (sem 4) % (P = 0·016) greater in the exercised compared with rested leg (1·59 (sem 0·12) v. 1·77 (sem 0·12) and 1·76 (sem 0·14) v. 1·93 (sem 0·12) %/d) in OMNI and VEG groups, respectively. Daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates did not differ between OMNI and VEG in either rested or exercised muscle (P > 0·05). Over the course of a 3-d intervention, omnivorous- or vegan-derived dietary protein sources can support equivalent rested and exercised daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in healthy older adults consuming a high-protein diet.
Precise instrumental calibration is of crucial importance to 21-cm cosmology experiments. The Murchison Widefield Array’s (MWA) Phase II compact configuration offers us opportunities for both redundant calibration and sky-based calibration algorithms; using the two in tandem is a potential approach to mitigate calibration errors caused by inaccurate sky models. The MWA Epoch of Reionization (EoR) experiment targets three patches of the sky (dubbed EoR0, EoR1, and EoR2) with deep observations. Previous work in Li et al. (2018) and (2019) studied the effect of tandem calibration on the EoR0 field and found that it yielded no significant improvement in the power spectrum (PS) over sky-based calibration alone. In this work, we apply similar techniques to the EoR1 field and find a distinct result: the improvements in the PS from tandem calibration are significant. To understand this result, we analyse both the calibration solutions themselves and the effects on the PS over three nights of EoR1 observations. We conclude that the presence of the bright radio galaxy Fornax A in EoR1 degrades the performance of sky-based calibration, which in turn enables redundant calibration to have a larger impact. These results suggest that redundant calibration can indeed mitigate some level of model incompleteness error.
Scientific interest in the therapeutic effects of classical psychedelics has increased in the past two decades. The psychological effects of these substances outside the period of acute intoxication have not been fully characterized. This study aimed to: (1) quantify the effects of psilocybin, ayahuasca, and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on psychological outcomes in the post-acute period; (2) test moderators of these effects; and (3) evaluate adverse effects and risk of bias.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies (single-group pre-post or randomized controlled trials) that involved administration of psilocybin, ayahuasca, or LSD to clinical or non-clinical samples and assessed psychological outcomes ⩾24 h post-administration. Effects were summarized by study design, timepoint, and outcome domain.
A total of 34 studies (24 unique samples, n = 549, mean longest follow-up = 55.34 weeks) were included. Classical psychedelics showed significant within-group pre-post and between-group placebo-controlled effects on a range of outcomes including targeted symptoms within psychiatric samples, negative and positive affect-related measures, social outcomes, and existential/spiritual outcomes, with large between-group effect in these domains (Hedges' gs = 0.84 to 1.08). Moderator tests suggest some effects may be larger in clinical samples. Evidence of effects on big five personality traits and mindfulness was weak. There was no evidence of post-acute adverse effects.
High risk of bias in several domains, heterogeneity across studies, and indications of publication bias for some models highlight the need for careful, large-scale, placebo-controlled randomized trials.
Mycoprotein consumption has been shown to improve acute postprandial glycaemic control and decrease circulating cholesterol concentrations. We investigated the impact of incorporating mycoprotein into the diet on insulin sensitivity (IS), glycaemic control and plasma lipoprotein composition. Twenty healthy adults participated in a randomised, parallel-group trial in which they consumed a 7 d fully controlled diet where lunch and dinner contained either meat/fish (control group, CON) or mycoprotein (MYC) as the primary source of dietary protein. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed pre- and post-intervention, and 24 h continuous blood glucose monitoring was applied throughout. Fasting plasma samples were obtained pre- and post-intervention and were analysed using quantitative, targeted NMR-based metabonomics. There were no changes within or between groups in blood glucose or serum insulin responses, nor in IS or 24 h glycaemic profiles. No differences between groups were found for 171 of the 224 metabonomic targets. Forty-five lipid concentrations of different lipoprotein fractions (VLDL, LDL, intermediate-density lipoprotein and HDL) remained unchanged in CON but showed a coordinated decrease (7–27 %; all P < 0·05) in MYC. Total plasma cholesterol, free cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL2-cholesterol, DHA and n-3 fatty acids decreased to a larger degree in MYC (14–19 %) compared with CON (3–11 %; P < 0·05). Substituting meat/fish for mycoprotein twice daily for 1 week did not modulate whole-body IS or glycaemic control but resulted in changes to plasma lipid composition, the latter primarily consisting of a coordinated reduction in circulating cholesterol-containing lipoproteins.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has greatly impacted health-care systems worldwide, leading to an unprecedented rise in demand for health-care resources. In anticipation of an acute strain on established medical facilities in Dallas, Texas, federal officials worked in conjunction with local medical personnel to convert a convention center into a Federal Medical Station capable of caring for patients affected by COVID-19. A 200,000 square foot event space was designated as a direct patient care area, with surrounding spaces repurposed to house ancillary services. Given the highly transmissible nature of the novel coronavirus, the donning and doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) was of particular importance for personnel staffing the facility. Furthermore, nationwide shortages in the availability of PPE necessitated the reuse of certain protective materials. This article seeks to delineate the procedures implemented regarding PPE in the setting of a COVID-19 disaster response shelter, including workspace flow, donning and doffing procedures, PPE conservation, and exposure event protocols.
Off-target paraquat movement to rice has become a major problem in recent years for rice producers in the midsouthern United States. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is applied to rice in greater quantity and frequency than all other nutrients to optimize rice yield. Two separate field studies were conducted from 2015 to 2018 in Stoneville, MS, to assess whether starter N fertilizer can aid rice recovery from exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of paraquat and to evaluate rice response to different N fertilizer management strategies following exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of paraquat. In both studies, paraquat treatments consisted of paraquat at 0 and 84 g ai ha–1 applied to rice in the two- to three-leaf (EPOST) growth stage. In the starter fertilizer study, N fertilizer at 24 kg ha–1 as ammonium sulfate (AMS) was applied to rice at spiking- to one-leaf (VEPOST), two- to three-leaf (EPOST), or three- to four-leaf (MPOST) growth stages before and after paraquat treatment. In the N fertilizer timing study, N fertilizer at 168 kg N ha–1 was applied in a single four-leaf to one-tiller (LPOST) application or two-, three-, and two four-way split applications. Despite starter N fertilizer applications, paraquat injured rice ≥41%, reduced height 57%, reduced dry weight prior to flooding 77%, delayed maturity 10 d, reduced dry weight at maturity 33%, and reduced rough rice yield 35% in the starter fertilizer study. Similarly, in the N fertilizer timing study, paraquat injured rice ≥45%, reduced height 14%, delayed maturity 10 d, reduced dry weight at maturity 44%, and reduced rough rice yield 50% for all N fertilizer management strategies. Both studies indicate that severe complications in growth and development can occur from rice exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of paraquat. In both studies, manipulation of N fertilizer management did not facilitate rice recovery from early-season exposure to paraquat.
Asylum court records are a potentially important evidentiary basis for postcolonial African history. Asylum-seeking is a contemporary transnational iteration of a rich African petitioning tradition. In the contemporary era, the digitization of court records, and their dispersal as a function of the shifting division of work between ministries, courts, and related bureaucracies, presents a challenge to researchers. Digital record keeping may improve accessibility, but only if researchers are familiar with the technology and archival methods and practices accompanying digitization.