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To identify the BOLD (blood oxygenation level dependent) correlates of bursts of beta frequency band electrophysiological activity, and to compare BOLD responses between healthy controls and patients with psychotic illness.
The post movement beta rebound (PMBR) is a transient increase in power in the beta frequency band (13-30 Hz), recorded with methods such as electroencephalography (EEG), following the completion of a movement. PMBR size is reduced in patients with schizophrenia and inversely correlated with severity of illness. PMBR size is inversely correlated with measures of schizotypy in non-clinical groups. Therefore, beta-band activity may reflect a fundamental neural process whose disruption plays an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Recent work has found that changes in beta power reflect changes in the probability-of-occurrence of transient bursts of beta-frequency activity. Understanding the generators of beta bursts could help unravel the pathophysiology of psychotic illness and thus identify novel treatment targets.
EEG data were recorded simultaneously with BOLD data measured with 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), whilst participants performed an n-back working memory task. We included seventy-eight participants – 32 patients with schizophrenia, 16 with bipolar disorder and 30 healthy controls. Beta bursts were identified in the EEG data using a thresholding method and burst timings were used as markers in an event-related fMRI design convolved with a conventional haemodynamic response function. A region of interest analysis compared beta-event-related BOLD activity between patients and controls.
Beta bursts phasically activated brain regions implicated in coding task-relevant content (specifically, regions involved in the phonological representation of letter stimuli, as well as areas representing motor responses). Further, bursts were associated with suppression of tonically-active regions. In the EEG, PMBR was greater in controls than patients, and, in patients, PMBR size was positively correlated with Global Assessment of Functioning scores, and negatively correlated with persisting symptoms of disorganisation and performance on a digit symbol substition test. Despite this, patients showed greater, more extensive, burst-related BOLD activation than controls.
Our findings are consistent with a recent model in which beta bursts serve to reactivate latently-maintained, task-relevant, sensorimotor information. The increased BOLD response associated with bursts in patients, despite reduced PMBR, could reflect inefficiency of burst-mediated cortical synchrony, or it may suggest that the sensorimotor information reactivated by beta bursts is less precisely specified in psychosis. We propose that dysfunction of the mechanisms by which beta bursts reactivate task-relevant content can manifest as disorganisation and working memory deficits, and may contribute to persisting symptoms and impairment in psychosis.
Dating of ancient permafrost is essential for understanding long-term permafrost stability and interpreting palaeoenvironmental conditions but presents substantial challenges to geochronology. Here, we apply four methods to permafrost from the megaslump at Batagay, east Siberia: (1) optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of quartz, (2) post-infrared infrared-stimulated luminescence (pIRIR) dating of K-feldspar, (3) radiocarbon dating of organic material, and (4) 36Cl/Cl dating of ice wedges. All four chronometers produce stratigraphically consistent and comparable ages. However, OSL appears to date Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 to MIS 2 deposits more reliably than pIRIR, whereas the latter is more consistent with 36Cl/Cl ages for older deposits. The lower ice complex developed at least 650 ka, potentially during MIS 16, and represents the oldest dated permafrost in western Beringia and the second-oldest known ice in the Northern Hemisphere. It has survived multiple interglaciations, including the super-interglaciation MIS 11c, though a thaw unconformity and erosional surface indicate at least one episode of permafrost thaw and erosion occurred sometime between MIS 16 and 6. The upper ice complex formed from at least 60 to 30 ka during late MIS 4 to 3. The sand unit above the upper ice complex is dated to MIS 3–2, whereas the sand unit below formed at some time between MIS 4 and 16.
Cancer in childhood is rare. The most recent SEER Cancer Statistics Review, released in April 2018 and covering 2011–2015, shows that for ages 0–14 the incidence of all cancer sites was 16.4 per 100,000 children, with mortality 2.1 per 100,000. Five-year relative survival for the same age group was 83.8% for years 2008–2014 . (Rates from the European Cancer Information System are similar but are currently available only to 2012.) As of 2015, 1 in 750 of the adult population of the United States was a long-term survivor of childhood cancer [1, 2]. Cancer is more common after puberty, with incidence rising from 12.9 for ages 5–9 to 23.3 for ages 15–19 in the United States for years 2011–2015 , and many of these patients will be cured by combination treatment, with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Long-term survivors are nevertheless at risk of developing a number of late sequelae , including impaired fertility, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and health problems in offspring [4–6].
The application of paraquat mixtures with residual herbicides before planting rice is a common treatment in Mississippi, and rice in proximity is susceptible to off-target movement of these applications. Four concurrent studies were conducted in Stoneville, MS, to characterize rice performance following exposure to a sublethal rate of paraquat, metribuzin, fomesafen, and cloransulam-methyl at different application timings. Herbicides were applied to rice at the growth stages of spiking to one-leaf (VEPOST), two- to three-leaf (EPOST), three- to four-leaf (MPOST), 7 d postflood (PFLD), and panicle differentiation (PD). Regardless of application timing, rice injury following exposure to paraquat was ≥45%. Delays in maturity were increased by 0.3 d d−1 following paraquat from emergence through PD. Dry weight, rough rice yield, panicle density, and germination were reduced by 18.7 g, 131.5 kg ha−1, 5.6 m−2, and 0.3%, respectively, per day from application of paraquat at emergence through PD. By 28 d after treatment (DAT), metribuzin injured rice 3% to 6%, and that injury did not translate into a yield reduction. Regardless of application timing, rice injury following fomesafen application ranged from 2% to 5% 28 DAT. Rice exposed to cloransulam-methyl EPOST exhibited the greatest root and foliar injury 21 DAT and 28 DAT, respectively. Additionally, when rice was exposed to cloransulam-methyl EPOST, yield was reduced to 6,540 kg ha−1 compared with a yield of 7,850 kg ha−1 from nontreated rice. Rice yield was negatively affected after paraquat was applied any time after rice emergence. However, applications of paraquat to rice at early reproductive growth stages reduced rough rice yield and seed germination the greatest. Application timing is crucial in determining severity of rice injury. Early-season injury to rice following paraquat application had less effect on yield compared with injury at later stages. Additionally, fields devoted to seed rice production are at risk for reduced seed germination if they are exposed to paraquat during early reproductive growth stages.
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) are prevalent in older people living with HIV (PLWH) worldwide. HAND prevalence and incidence studies of the newly emergent population of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated older PLWH in sub-Saharan Africa are currently lacking. We aimed to estimate HAND prevalence and incidence using robust measures in stable, cART-treated older adults under long-term follow-up in Tanzania and report cognitive comorbidities.
A systematic sample of consenting HIV-positive adults aged ≥50 years attending routine clinical care at an HIV Care and Treatment Centre during March–May 2016 and followed up March–May 2017.
HAND by consensus panel Frascati criteria based on detailed locally normed low-literacy neuropsychological battery, structured neuropsychiatric clinical assessment, and collateral history. Demographic and etiological factors by self-report and clinical records.
In this cohort (n = 253, 72.3% female, median age 57), HAND prevalence was 47.0% (95% CI 40.9–53.2, n = 119) despite well-managed HIV disease (Mn CD4 516 (98-1719), 95.5% on cART). Of these, 64 (25.3%) were asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, 46 (18.2%) mild neurocognitive disorder, and 9 (3.6%) HIV-associated dementia. One-year incidence was high (37.2%, 95% CI 25.9 to 51.8), but some reversibility (17.6%, 95% CI 10.0–28.6 n = 16) was observed.
HAND appear highly prevalent in older PLWH in this setting, where demographic profile differs markedly to high-income cohorts, and comorbidities are frequent. Incidence and reversibility also appear high. Future studies should focus on etiologies and potentially reversible factors in this setting.
The Fontan Outcomes Network was created to improve outcomes for children and adults with single ventricle CHD living with Fontan circulation. The network mission is to optimise longevity and quality of life by improving physical health, neurodevelopmental outcomes, resilience, and emotional health for these individuals and their families. This manuscript describes the systematic design of this new learning health network, including the initial steps in development of a national, lifespan registry, and pilot testing of data collection forms at 10 congenital heart centres.
UK trees require increased conservation efforts due to sparse and fragmented populations. Ex situ conservation, including seed banking, can be used to better manage these issues. We conducted accelerated ageing tests on seeds of 22 UK native woody species, in order to assess their likely longevity and optimize their conservation in a seed bank. Germination at four ageing time points was determined to construct survival curves, and it was concluded that multiple samples within a species showed comparable responses for most species tested, except for Fraxinus excelsior. Of all species studied, one could be classified as very short-lived, four as short-lived and 17 as medium, with none exceeding the medium category. The most important finding of this manuscript is that although some taxonomic trends were observed, the results indicate the need for caution when making broad conclusions on potential seed storage life at a species, genus or family level. Longevity predictions were compared to actual performance of older collections held in long-term storage at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew. Although most collections remain high in viability in storage after more than 20 years, for short-lived species at least, there is some indication that accelerated ageing predicts longevity in seed bank conditions. For species with reduced potential longevity, such as Fagus sylvatica and Ulmus glabra, additional storage options are recommended for long-term gene banking.
Palmer amaranth is one of the most difficult-to-control weeds in row crop systems and has evolved resistance to several herbicide sites of action (SOAs). A late-season weed-escape survey had been conducted earlier to determine the distribution of protoporphyrinogen oxidase–inhibitor resistant Palmer Amaranth in Arkansas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of Arkansas Palmer amaranth accessions to commonly used herbicide SOAs. The SOAs evaluated were group 2 + 9, 3, 4, 5, 10, 14, 15, and 27, and the representative herbicide from each group was imazethapyr + glyphosate (79 + 860 g ha−1), trifluralin (1,120 g ha−1), dicamba (280 and 560 g ha−1), atrazine (560 g ha−1), glufosinate (594 g ha−1), fomesafen (395 g ha−1), S-metolachlor (1,064 g ha−1), and tembotrione (92 g ha−1), respectively. Palmer amaranth mortality varied among accessions across SOAs. Averaged across accessions, the mortality rates, by treatment in order from lowest to highest, were as follows: glyphosate + imazethapyr (16%), tembotrione (51%), dicamba at 280 g ha−1 (51%), fomesafen (76%), dicamba at 560 g ha−1 (82%), atrazine (85%), trifluralin (87%), S-metolachlor (96%), and glufosinate (99.5%). This study provides evidence that Palmer amaranth accessions with low susceptibility to glyphosate + imazethapyr, fomesafen, and tembotrione are widespread throughout Arkansas. Of the remaining SOAs, most Palmer amaranth accessions were sensitive; however, within each herbicide SOA, except glufosinate, control of some accessions was less than expected and resistance is suspected.
First episode psychosis (FEP) patients who use cannabis experience more frequent psychotic and euphoric intoxication experiences compared to controls. It is not clear whether this is consequent to patients being more vulnerable to the effects of cannabis use or to their heavier pattern of use. We aimed to determine whether extent of use predicted psychotic-like and euphoric intoxication experiences in patients and controls and whether this differs between groups.
We analysed data on patients who had ever used cannabis (n = 655) and controls who had ever used cannabis (n = 654) across 15 sites from six countries in the EU-GEI study (2010–2015). We used multiple regression to model predictors of cannabis-induced experiences and to determine if there was an interaction between caseness and extent of use.
Caseness, frequency of cannabis use and money spent on cannabis predicted psychotic-like and euphoric experiences (p ⩽ 0.001). For psychotic-like experiences (PEs) there was a significant interaction for caseness × frequency of use (p < 0.001) and caseness × money spent on cannabis (p = 0.001) such that FEP patients had increased experiences at increased levels of use compared to controls. There was no significant interaction for euphoric experiences (p > 0.5).
FEP patients are particularly sensitive to increased psychotic-like, but not euphoric experiences, at higher levels of cannabis use compared to controls. This suggests a specific psychotomimetic response in FEP patients related to heavy cannabis use. Clinicians should enquire regarding cannabis related PEs and advise that lower levels of cannabis use are associated with less frequent PEs.
Acute cannabis administration can produce transient psychotic-like effects in healthy individuals. However, the mechanisms through which this occurs and which factors predict vulnerability remain unclear. We investigate whether cannabis inhalation leads to psychotic-like symptoms and speech illusion; and whether cannabidiol (CBD) blunts such effects (study 1) and adolescence heightens such effects (study 2).
Two double-blind placebo-controlled studies, assessing speech illusion in a white noise task, and psychotic-like symptoms on the Psychotomimetic States Inventory (PSI). Study 1 compared effects of Cann-CBD (cannabis containing Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and negligible levels of CBD) with Cann+CBD (cannabis containing THC and CBD) in 17 adults. Study 2 compared effects of Cann-CBD in 20 adolescents and 20 adults. All participants were healthy individuals who currently used cannabis.
In study 1, relative to placebo, both Cann-CBD and Cann+CBD increased PSI scores but not speech illusion. No differences between Cann-CBD and Cann+CBD emerged. In study 2, relative to placebo, Cann-CBD increased PSI scores and incidence of speech illusion, with the odds of experiencing speech illusion 3.1 (95% CIs 1.3–7.2) times higher after Cann-CBD. No age group differences were found for speech illusion, but adults showed heightened effects on the PSI.
Inhalation of cannabis reliably increases psychotic-like symptoms in healthy cannabis users and may increase the incidence of speech illusion. CBD did not influence psychotic-like effects of cannabis. Adolescents may be less vulnerable to acute psychotic-like effects of cannabis than adults.
Environmental information from place-names has largely been overlooked by geoarchaeologists and fluvial geomorphologists in analyses of the depositional histories of rivers and floodplains. Here, new flood chronologies for the rivers Teme, Severn, and Wye are presented, modelled from stable river sections excavated at Broadwas, Buildwas, and Rotherwas. These are connected by the Old English term *wæsse, interpreted as ‘land by a meandering river which floods and drains quickly’. The results reveal that, in all three places, flooding during the early medieval period occurred more frequently between AD 350–700 than between AD 700–1100, but that over time each river's flooding regime became more complex including high magnitude single events. In the sampled locations, the fluvial dynamics of localized flood events had much in common, and almost certainly differed in nature from other sections of their rivers, refining our understanding of the precise nature of flooding which their names sought to communicate. This study shows how the toponymic record can be helpful in the long-term reconstruction of historic river activity and for our understanding of past human perceptions of riverine environments.
Daily use of high-potency cannabis has been reported to carry a high risk for developing a psychotic disorder. However, the evidence is mixed on whether any pattern of cannabis use is associated with a particular symptomatology in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients.
We analysed data from 901 FEP patients and 1235 controls recruited across six countries, as part of the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study. We used item response modelling to estimate two bifactor models, which included general and specific dimensions of psychotic symptoms in patients and psychotic experiences in controls. The associations between these dimensions and cannabis use were evaluated using linear mixed-effects models analyses.
In patients, there was a linear relationship between the positive symptom dimension and the extent of lifetime exposure to cannabis, with daily users of high-potency cannabis having the highest score (B = 0.35; 95% CI 0.14–0.56). Moreover, negative symptoms were more common among patients who never used cannabis compared with those with any pattern of use (B = −0.22; 95% CI −0.37 to −0.07). In controls, psychotic experiences were associated with current use of cannabis but not with the extent of lifetime use. Neither patients nor controls presented differences in depressive dimension related to cannabis use.
Our findings provide the first large-scale evidence that FEP patients with a history of daily use of high-potency cannabis present with more positive and less negative symptoms, compared with those who never used cannabis or used low-potency types.
This article presents economic interactions in two Chinese socioeconomic realms: urban funerals and village-level welfare funds. Ethnographically examining these realms reveals that each of them comprises a diversity of economic processes and moralities. Our first point is thus that ‘the economy’ is a multiple rather than a singular entity. But just as important are the means by which actors move from one form of economy to another, bridging different sets of moral rules. Diverse economic processes and the methods of moving among them exist everywhere, but in China they also reflect the legal ambiguity under which much economic activity takes place. In addition to detailing the differing forms of economy and the ways of moving among them, we show how the intersection between these processes helps to reproduce a certain social order, at least under the socioeconomic conditions at the time of our research.
We discuss the time-series behavior of 8 extragalactic 3FGL sources away from the Galactic plane (i.e., |b|⩾10°) whose uncertainty ellipse contains a single X-ray and one radio source. The analysis was done using the standard Fermi ScienceTools, package of version v10r0p5. The results show that sources in the study sample display a slight indication of flux variability in γ-ray on monthly timescale. Furthermore, based on the object location on the variability index versus spectral index diagram, the positions of 4 objects in the sample were found to fall in the region of the already known BL Lac positions.
Blazars are radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) with relativistic jets oriented towards the observer’s line-of-sight. Based on their optical spectra, blazars may be classified as flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) or BL Lacs. FSRQs are more luminous blazars with both narrow and broad emission and absorption lines, while BL Lacs are less luminous and featureless. Recent studies show that blazars dominate (˜93%) the already-identified EGRET sources (142), suggesting that among the unidentified sources (129) there could still be faint blazars. Due to the presence of a strong non-thermal component inside their jets, blazars are found to display a weaker depression at ˜4000 Å (K 4000 ≤ 0.4). In this study, we aimed at determining the K 4000 break for a selected sample among the potential blazar candidates from unidentified EGRET sources to confirm their blazar nature. We used two blazar candidates, 3EG J1800-0146 and 3EG J1709-0817 associated with radio counterparts, J1802-0207 and J1713-0817, respectively. Their optical counterparts were obtained through spectroscopic observations using Robert Stobie spectrograph (RSS) at the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) in South Africa. The observed Ca II H & K lines depression at ˜4000 Å in spectra of these sources show a shallow depression, K 4000 = 0.35 ± 0.02 and 0.24 ± 0.01, respectively, suggesting that these sources are blazar candidates. Moreover, the redshifts z = 0.165 and 0.26 measured in their spectra confirm the extragalactic nature of these sources.
We present a systematic study of gamma-ray blazar candidates based on a sample of 40 objects taken from the WIBR catalogue. By using a likelihood analysis, 26 of the 40 sources showed significant gamma-ray signatures ⩾ 3σ. Using high-energy test statistics (TS) maps, we confirm 8 sources, which are completely new, and show another 15 promising γ-ray candidates. The results from this analysis show that a multi-frequency approach can help to improve the current description of the gamma-ray sky.
Choosing Wisely Canada (CWC) is a national initiative designed to encourage patient-clinician discussions about the appropriate, evidence-based use of medical tests, procedures and treatments. The Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians’ (CAEP) Choosing Wisely Canada (CWC) working group developed and released ten recommendations relevant to Emergency Medicine in June 2015 (items 1–5) and October 2016 (items 6–10). In November 2016, the CAEP CWC working group developed a process for updating the recommendations. This process involves: 1) Using GRADE to evaluate the quality of evidence, 2) reviewing relevant recommendations on an ad hoc basis as new evidence emerges, and 3) reviewing all recommendations every five years. While the full review of the CWC recommendations will be performed in 2020, a number of high-impact studies were published after our initial launch that prompted an ad hoc review of the relevant three of our ten recommendations prior to the full review in 2020. This paper describes the results of the CAEP CWC working group's ad hoc review of three of our ten recommendations in light of recent publications.
This paper proposes that common measures for network transitivity, based on the enumeration of transitive triples, do not reflect the theoretical statements about transitivity they aim to describe. These statements are often formulated as comparative conditional probabilities, but these are not directly reflected by simple functions of enumerations. We think that a better approach is obtained by considering the probability of a tie between two randomly drawn nodes, conditional on selected features of the network. Two measures of transitivity based on correlation coefficients between the existence of a tie and the existence, or the number, of two-paths between the nodes are developed, and called “Transitivity Phi” and “Transitivity Correlation.” Some desirable properties for these measures are studied and compared to existing clustering coefficients, in both random (Erdös–Renyi) and in stylized networks (windmills). Furthermore, it is shown that in a directed graph, under the condition of zero Transitivity Correlation, the total number of transitive triples is determined by four underlying features: size, density, reciprocity, and the covariance between in- and outdegrees. Also, it is demonstrated that plotting conditional probability of ties, given the number of two-paths, provides valuable insights into empirical regularities and irregularities of transitivity patterns.
The unsteady lift response of an airfoil in a sinusoidal gust has in the past been modelled by two different transfer functions: the first-order Sears function and the second-order Atassi function. Previous studies have shown that the Sears function holds in experiments, but recently Cordes et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 811, 2017) reported experimental data that corresponded to the Atassi function rather than the Sears function. In order to clarify the observed discrepancy, the specific differences between these models are isolated analytically. To this end, data and analysis are confined to unloaded airfoils. These differences are related to physical gust parameters, and gusts with these parameters are then produced in wind-tunnel experiments using an active-grid gust generator. Measurements of the unsteady gust loads on an airfoil in the wind tunnel at Reynolds numbers (
and reduced frequencies between
confirm that the Sears and Atassi functions differ only in convention: the additional gust component of the Atassi problem can be scaled so that the Atassi function collapses onto the Sears function. These experiments, complemented by numerical simulations of the set-up, validate both models across a range of gust parameters. Finally, the influence of boundary-layer turbulence and the turbulent wake of the gust generator on experimental convergence with model predictions is investigated. These results serve to clarify the conditions under which the Sears and Atassi functions can be applied, and demonstrate that the Sears function can effectively model unsteady forces even when significant fluctuations in the streamwise velocity are present.