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Inmates present higher prevalence of mental and physical disorders and are subject of some kind of social exclusion than the general population. The assessment of unmet needs is crucial for care planning.
To assess and compare the need for care between male and female inmates undergoing psychiatric treatment.
Delivery of health and social care in prisons.
A cross-sectional, descriptive study of a non-probabilistic convenience sample of inmates referenced to a forensic psychiatric clinic in Lisbon region, during a year, was performed. The research protocol, besides a specific questionnaire, includes MINI; BPRS; GAF and Camberwell Assessment of Need, Forensic Version (CANFOR).
Seventy nine males (median age 36) and 35 females (median age 32) were receiving psychiatric treatment at the time of the study. Anti-social personality disorder in men (62%) and major depression in women (62.9%) were the most frequent disorders found. Males more often present moderate to high suicide risk (36.7%) than females (28.6%). The number of unmet needs was significantly increased in males (average 6 ± 2.2) than females (4.3 ± 2.2; p< o.oo1). For males, the more frequent unmet needs concerns sexual expression (79.7%), social benefits (77.2%) and psychological distress (63.3%) and for females it was psychological distress, social benefits (62.9% each) and company (51.4%).
The results indicate that male inmates have higher behavioral risk and more unmet needs than female inmates. The assessment of needs in prisons is important for the development of strategies concerning care, social integration and prevention of criminal recidivism.
Non-persistence with antidepressants results in poor benefit-risk trade-off. Although antidepressant use in youth is has increased markedly, few utilization studies have been conducted in this population. The objectives were to determine non-persistence with antidepressant treatment in the Quebec youth and identify factors associated with non-persistence.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Quebec health databases (RAMQ). All children (2-14 year-old) and adolescents (15-19 year-old) who were new users of antidepressants between 1997 and 2005 were followed for up to 12 months after treatment initiation. Non-persistence was defined as treatment duration with any antidepressant of less than 6 months. Independent variables included i) treatment characteristics; ii) patient characteristics.
53% of children and 29% of adolescents who were dispensed antidepressants were males. Only 60% of children and 75% of adolescents had received a psychiatric diagnosis that may require antidepressants. SSRIs were less prescribed in children than in adolescents (33% vs. 59%) unlike tricyclics (51 % vs 20%). General practitioners were the main prescribers in adolescents but not in children. Overall, 58% of patients were non-persistent. Non-persistence was associated with low maintenance dosages, absence of medical follow-up and being prescribed tricyclics as opposed to SSRIs. [respectively, OR 1.2 (95%CI 1.1-1.3), OR 1.6 (95%CI 1.4-1.7), and OR 2.3 (95%CI 2-2.4)].
Children and adolescents appear to be two distinct sub-populations with respect to antidepressant use; adolescents being very similar to adults. However, factors associated with non-persistence are similar for both age groups.
The most obvious that could be conceived is that after an intersubjective crisis situation such as a genocide, the victims fall under a heinous dynamics and a desire of revenge against their torturers. It is thus potentially paradoxical in such a context to imaginate a harmonious bond, of deep attachment between the survivor and his attacker or his relative. However, the factual reality in the aftermath of the 1994 Rwandan genocide drama presents a different picture. Improbable families recomposed with the adoption of abandoned genocidaries children (in flight) by survivors.
Consider a healthy bond where the hatred in the trauma of the otherness seems as evidence becomes the most enigmatic paradoxes, that which comes the concepts of”hainamoration” in the trauma clinic.
The major question here is the one of the direction of this adoption for the survivors.
In other words, what whould be the real dimension of the relationship that is built between these abandoned children and the surviving victims of the destructive act of their parents ?
To understand the psychic mechanisms induced by the constraint of the Co-existance of two enemies after an intersubjective drama such as a genocid.
Consider a theoretical reflection in the service of trauma clinical and identify the paterns of the traumatic remission in such a context.
This study is based on our clinical experience in Rwanda after the 1994 genocid. The target populations here is the survivors of this genocid.
It is primarily based on psychopathology and psychoanalytic repositories from and maintains clinical observation.
’hainamoration’ as mutation and/or transformation of the primary hatred into’love’ allows the victim to better reflect and decide the fate of his trauma. From this, we reach to the second conclusion that, with the constant desire for revenge and hatred that drives the survivor, ’only love allows the enjoyment to condescend of desire’ (of this revenge).
In this study, we compared duration of untreated illness (DUI) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder (PD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients and investigated its correlates, both within specific diagnoses and across the whole sample.
Eighty-eight patients (33 OCD, 24 SAD, and 31 PD) had their diagnosis confirmed by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, were assessed for treatment-seeking variables, and were evaluated with instruments aimed at quantifying transdiagnostic features (i.e., the Cause subscale of the Illness Perception Questionnaire–Mental Health and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index–Revised) and severity of illness (i.e., Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, and the Social Phobia Inventory).
The only differences between groups with short (<2 years) versus long (>2 years) DUI were greater fear of public display of anxiety in the first group and greater social avoidance in the second group. The DUI was significantly different between groups that sought treatment after the onset of illness, with OCD patients having longer DUI than PD patients and shorter DUI than SAD patients. Further, DUI correlated negatively with the perception of OCD being caused by stress and positively with severity of panic-related disability in SAD patients, but not in PD or OCD patients.
There was substantial delay in treatment seeking among the anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder patients, particularly those with OCD or SAD. Perception of stress as a cause of OCD prompted treatment seeking, while severity of panic symptoms delayed treatment seeking.
Systematic review and analysis of definitions of translational research.
Materials and methods
The final corpus was comprised of 33 papers, each read by at least 2 reviewers. Definitions were mapped to a common set of research processes for presentation and analysis. Influence of papers and definitions was further evaluated using citation analysis and agglomerative clustering.
All definitions were mapped to common research processes, revealing most common labels for each process. Agglomerative clustering revealed 3 broad families of definitions. Citation analysis showed that the originating paper of each family has been cited ~10 times more than any other member.
Although there is little agreement between definitions, we were able to identify an emerging consensus 5-phase (T0–T4) definition for translational research. T1 involves processes that bring ideas from basic research through early testing in humans. T2 involves the establishment of effectiveness in humans and clinical guidelines. T3 primarily focuses on implementation and dissemination research while T4 focuses on outcomes and effectiveness in populations. T0 involves research such as genome-wide association studies which wrap back around to basic research.
We used systematic review and analysis to identify emerging consensus between definitions of translational research phases.
We have studied the structural and dynamical parameters
of two samples of elliptical-like-objects (ELOs)
formed in a set of self-consistent hydrodynamical simulations.
ELO stellar masses,
projected half- stellar mass radii, and stellar central
l.o.s. velocity dispersions have been found to
define a dynamical Fundamental Plane (FP),
whose physical origin we report on.
From a sample of more than 100 remnants from major and minor
hydrodynamic binary galaxy merger simulations (Cox 2004; Cox et al.
2005), we find that stellar remnants are mostly oblate while
dark matter halos are mostly prolate or triaxial. Shapes are
determined by iteratively diagonalizing a moment-of-inertia tensor.
The preferred axes of the two shapes are almost always nearly
perpendicular. This can be understood by considering the influence
of angular momentum and dissipation during the merger. If binary
major mergers of spiral galaxies are responsible for the formation
of elliptical galaxies or some subpopulation of elliptical galaxies,
then the galaxies can be be expected to be oblate and the dark
matter halos prolate with the two preferred axes perpendicular to
We present high resolution two dimensional velocity fields
from integral field spectroscopy along with derived rotation curves for nine low surface brightness galaxies. This is a positive step forward in terms of both data quality and number of objects studied. We fit NFW and pseudo-isothermal halo models to the observations. We find that the pseudo-isothermal halo better represents the data in most cases than the NFW halo, as the resulting concentrations are lower than would be expected for ΛCDM.
The nonperturbative renormalization group flow of Quantum Einstein
Gravity (QEG) is reviewed. It is argued that there could be strong
renormalization effects at large distances, in particular a scale dependent Newton
constant, which mimic the presence of dark matter at galactic and
The standard model of cosmology considers the existence of two components of unknown nature, “dark matter” and “dark energy”, which determine the cosmological evolution. Their nature remains unknown, and other models can also be considered. In particular, it may be possible to reinterpret the recent cosmological observations so that the Universe does not contain two fluids of unknown natures, but only one fluid with particular properties. After a brief review of constraints on this unifying “dark fluid”, we will discuss a specific model of dark fluid based on a complex scalar fluid.
One can solve the Jeans equation analytically for
equilibrated dark matter structures, once given two pieces of input
from numerical simulations. These inputs are 1) a connection between
phase-space density and radius, and 2) a connection between velocity
anisotropy and density slope, the α – β relation. The first
(phase-space density vs. radius) has been analysed through several
different simulations, however the second (α – β relation) has not
been quantified yet. We perform a large set of numerical experiments
in order to quantify the slope and zero-point of the α – β
relation. This allows us to conclude that equilibrated dark matter
structures indeed have zero central velocity anisotropy,
slope of α0 ≈ –0.8, and outer anisotropy of
approximately β∞ ≈ 0.5.
Cosmological simulations of structure formation predict that galaxies
are dramatically modified by galaxy harassment during the assembly of
galaxy clusters, losing a substantial fraction of their stellar mass
which today must be in the form of intracluster stars. Simulations
predict non-uniform spatial and radial velocity distributions for
these stars. Intracluster planetary nebulae are the only abundant
component of the intracluster light whose kinematics can be measured
at this time. Comparing these velocity distributions with simulations
will provide a unique opportunity to investigate the hierarchical
cluster formation process as it takes place in the nearby universe.
We present HI data of the dwarf galaxy DDO 47, aimed at testing
the hypothesis that dark halo triaxiality might induce non-circular motions resulting
in rotation curves best fitted by cored halos, even if the dark matter halo is intrinsically
We performed a harmonic decomposition of the velocity field in order to search for
alleged non-circular motions needed to “hide” a cusp: in DDO 47
non-circular motions are globally at a level of 2–3 km s-1,
far from being sufficient to
reconcile the observed rotation curve
with the ΛCDM predictions.
We conclude that the dark matter halo around
DDO 47 is truly cored and that a cusp cannot be hidden by non-circular motions.
More details are shown in Gentile et al. (2005).
We use the mass-to-light gradients in early-type galaxies to infer the global dark matter fraction, fd = Md/M*, for these systems. We discuss implications about the total star formation efficiency in dark-matter halos and show that the the trend of fd with mass produces virial mass-to-light ratios which are consistent semi-analitical models. Preliminary kurtosis analysis of the quasi-constant M/L galaxies in Romanowsky et al. seems at odd with Dekel et al. simulations.
The mass distribution of galaxy clusters can be determined from the
study of the projected phase-space distribution of cluster galaxies.
The main advantage of this method as compared to others, is that it
allows determination of cluster mass profiles out to very large
radii. Here I review recent analyses and results on this topic. In
particular, I briefly describe the Jeans and Caustic methods, and the
problems one has to face in applying these methods to galaxy
systems. Then, I summarize the most recent and important results on
the mass distributions of galaxy groups, clusters, and superclusters.
Additional covered topics are the relative distributions of the dark
and baryonic components, and the orbits of galaxies in clusters.
Polar ring galaxies, where matter is in equilibrium in perpendicular
orbits around spiral galaxies, are ideal objects to probe the 3D shapes
of dark matter halos. The conditions to constrain the halos are that the
perpendicular system does not strongly perturb the host galaxy, or that
it is possible to derive back its initial shape, knowing the formation
scenario of the polar ring. The formation mechanisms are reviewed:
mergers, tidal accretion, or gas accretion from cosmic filaments.
The Tully-Fisher diagram for polar rings reveals that the velocity
in the polar plane is higher than in the host plane, which can
only be explained if the dark matter is oblate and flattened
along the polar plane. Only a few individual systems have
been studied in details, and 3D shapes of their haloes determined
by several methods. The high frequency of warps could be explained
by spontaneous bending instability, if the disks are sufficiently
self-gravitating, which can put constraints on the dark matter flattening.
Recent X-ray observations have been showing that the old vision of
clusters as peacefully relaxed structures is in most cases absolutely
wrong. Coupled with optical and radio observations, these X-ray data
show evidence for violent mechanisms. Results based on XMM-Newton gas
temperature maps for four clusters will be presented here.
We present the preliminary results from a combined X-ray/ lensing
investigation of the galaxy cluster RBS 864 (z = 0.29).
Morphological and spectral studies of X-ray data show a relaxed appearance
of this cluster, thus allowing us to derive a good mass estimate.
From optical data we found the presence of a very high number of
arc candidates and performed a strong lensing mass analysis.
We found a large discrepancy in the comparison of the X-ray and lensing
The hierarchical nature of halo formation in the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) model
suggests that there should be mass dependent trends in the radial velocity and
velocity anisotropy profiles of dark matter haloes, with more massive systems
exhibiting the effects of more pronounced infall. We present results from a
sample of high resolution cosmological N-body simulations of individual dwarf,
galaxy and cluster mass haloes, and demonstrate that such trends with mass are