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Plasma vertical displacement control is essential for the stable operation of tokamak devices. The traditional plasma vertical displacement calculation method is not suitable for balancing speed and accuracy simultaneously, which is necessary for real-time feedback control. In this study, neural networks are used to rapidly detect vertical displacement recognition. Based on a fully connected neural network, the vertical displacement calculation model is trained and tested using magnetic data of approximately 2000 shots. To compare the effects of different inputs on vertical displacement calculation, different magnetic measurement diagnostic signals are used to train and test the model. Compared with a full magnetic measurement dataset, 39 magnetic measurement signals (38 magnetic probes and plasma current) show better accuracy with mean square error <0.0005. The model is tested using historical experimental data, and it demonstrates accurate vertical displacement calculation even in the case of a vertical displacement event. In general, neural network algorithm has great application potential in vertical displacement calculation.
Limited studies provide direct evidence of Clonorchis sinensis adults in the early stage of gallbladder stone formation. Our current research systematically studied 33 gallbladder stones resembling adult worms and shed light on the definite connection of C. sinensis infection with concomitant cholelithiasis. A total of 33 gallbladder stones resembling adult C. sinensis worms were systematically analysed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy spectrometry were used to analyse the composition and microstructure. Meanwhile, a histopathological examination of the stone was carried out. The 33 gallbladder stones resembling adult C. sinensis worms included nine calcium carbonate (CaCO3) stones, 12 bilirubinate stones and 12 mixed stones. Clonorchis sinensis eggs were found in 30 cases, including all CaCO3 and mixed stones. Parasite tissues were detected in 12 cases, which were mainly CaCO3 stones or bilirubinate–CaCO3 mixed stones. The outer layer of stones was wrapped with 12.88% calcium salt, as revealed by X-ray energy spectrometry, while surprisingly, many C. sinensis eggs were found in the inner part of these stones. Based on our current findings, we concluded that calcification and packaging occurred after C. sinensis adult entrance into the gallbladder, subsequently leading to the early formation of CaCO3 or bilirubinate–CaCO3 mixed gallbladder stones. This discovery highlights definite evidence for C. sinensis infection causing gallbladder stones.
Chapter 5 offers the first systemic examination of the strategic considerations that underpin an emerging trend that has not yet gained enough attention in either academic or policy circles – the growing role of counterterrorism in China’s foreign policy. China needs to enhance its force’s counterterrorism capabilities, protect the growing number of Chinese nationals and assets abroad, and build an image as a responsible international stakeholder. However, these goals conflict with China’s desire to minimize grievances arising from its economic activities, which could lead to the country becoming a target for international terrorist groups. Empirical analyses of original data on the counterterrorism joint military exercises held by China and foreign forces indicate that China is highly cautious and selective when it comes to these exercises. Military counterterrorism cooperation tends to closely follow Chinese economic investments.
Chapter 4 documents and analyzes China’s domestic policies aimed at countering Uyghur violence. We discuss the broad securitization of Xinjiang, including budgets and the forces involved. Drawing on the best available data on Uyghur-related political violence and China’s public security expenditure in Xinjiang, we present the first rigorous assessment of the feedback loop of violence and repression in Xinjiang. We demonstrate that government repression is not systematically followed by increased Uyghur violence and that increased security expenditures are excessive and inefficient, especially in the long run. This chapter also traces the recent strategic shift in China’s policies from postattack securitization toward actively and forcibly promoting ethnic mingling and “de-extremification.” While this policy reorientation has been attributed to Beijing’s intolerance of instability, our analysis shows that it is a result of a more complex set of competing priorities within the Chinese government.
Chapter 1 sets the stage for our study, introducing both the political violence and repression endemic to Xinjiang. We provide a brief account of the recent history of Xinjiang and the Uyghurs to contextualize the current situation before introducing the book’s motivations, arguments, and structure.
Chapter 6 concludes the book with a discussion of the future of Xinjiang as well as the implications for both China and US foreign policy. Given the ongoing US presence in Afghanistan, the complexities of US relations with Pakistan, and the increasing presence of Chinese nationals around the globe, it is easy to imagine how a seemingly manageable precipitating event could lead to outsized effects.