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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) created major disruptions at academic centers and healthcare systems globally. Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) fund hubs supported by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences provideinfrastructure and leadership for clinical and translational research at manysuch institutions.
We surveyed CTSA hubs and received responses from 94% of them regarding the impact of the pandemic and the processes employed for the protection of research personnel and participants with respect to the conduct of research, specifically for studies unrelated to COVID-19.
In this report, we describe the results of the survey findings in the context of the current understanding of disease transmission and mitigation techniques.
We reflect on common practices and provide recommendations regarding lessons learned that will be relevant to future pandemics, particularly with regards to staging the cessation and resumption of research activities with an aim to keep the workforce, research participants, and our communities safe in future pandemics.
The following position statement from the Union of the European Phoniatricians, updated on 25th May 2020 (superseding the previous statement issued on 21st April 2020), contains a series of recommendations for phoniatricians and ENT surgeons who provide and/or run voice, swallowing, speech and language, or paediatric audiology services.
This material specifically aims to inform clinical practices in countries where clinics and operating theatres are reopening for elective work. It endeavours to present a current European view in relation to common procedures, many of which fall under the aegis of aerosol generating procedures.
As evidence continues to build, some of the recommended practices will undoubtedly evolve, but it is hoped that the updated position statement will offer clinicians precepts on safe clinical practice.
Patients with antisocial personality disorder incur high costs on society, and are at high risk of dropping out of treatment and are often excluded from treatment, yet very little research has been conducted on how to best help these patients.
To test a six-session psychoeducation program, Impulsive Lifestyle Counselling, in outpatients with substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder.
To test the efficacy of the intervention versus treatment as usual in community outpatient treatment for substance use disorders.
Pragmatic randomized trial in 13 outpatient community substance abuse treatment uptake areas. Patients were interviewed by blinded interviewers 3, 9 and 15 months post-randomization and tracked through a national substance abuse treatment register. Mixed effects regression were used to assess substance use and self-reported aggression and Cox regression was used to assess risk of dropout.
A total of 175 patients was randomized. At 3-month follow-up, patients randomized to intervention reported more days abstinent and less drug use severity than patients randomized to treatment as usual. In addition, patients randomized to intervention were at lower risk of dropout after intervention. In addition, patients randomized to intervention were more likely to report having received help for antisocial personality disorder at follow-up interviews.
A brief psychoeducational intervention may improve outcomes for outpatients with antisocial personality disorder.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
We investigate the relationship between environment and star formation main sequence (the relationship between stellar mass and star formation rate) to shed new light on the effects of the environments on star-forming galaxies. We use the large VLA-COSMOS 3 GHz catalogue that consist of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) and active galactic nuclei (AGN) in three different environments (field, filament, cluster) and for different galaxy types. We examine for the first time a comparative analysis for the distribution of SFGs with respect to the star formation main sequence (MS) consensus region from the literature, taking into account galaxy environment and using radio selected sample at 0.1 ≤ z ≤ 1.2 drawn from one of the deepest COSMOS radio surveys. We find that, as observed previously, SFRs increase with redshift independent on the environments. Furthermore, we observe that SFRs versus M* relation is flat in all cases, irrespective of the redshift and environments.
To assess iodine status among pregnant women in rural Zinder, Niger and to compare their status with the iodine status of school-aged children from the same households.
Seventy-three villages in the catchment area of sixteen health centres were randomly selected to participate in the cross-sectional survey.
Salt iodization is mandatory in Niger, requiring 20–60 ppm iodine at the retail level.
A spot urine sample was collected from randomly selected pregnant women (n 662) and one school-aged child from the same household (n 373). Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was assessed as an indicator of iodine status in both groups. Dried blood spots (DBS) were collected from venous blood samples of pregnant women and thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid-stimulating hormone and total thyroxine were measured. Iodine content of household salt samples (n 108) was assessed by titration.
Median iodine content of salt samples was 5·5 ppm (range 0–41 ppm), 98 % had an iodine content <20 ppm. Median (interquartile range) UIC of pregnant women and school-aged children was 69·0 (38·1–114·3) and 100·9 (61·2–163·2) µg/l, respectively. Although nearly all pregnant women were euthyroid, their median (interquartile range) DBS-Tg was 34·6 (23·9–49·7) µg/l and 38·4 % had DBS-Tg>40 µg/l.
In this region of Niger, most salt is inadequately iodized. UIC in pregnant women indicated iodine deficiency, whereas UIC of school-aged children indicated marginally adequate iodine status. Thus, estimating population iodine status based solely on monitoring of UIC among school-aged children may underestimate the risk of iodine deficiency in pregnant women.
Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is a lipoprotein lipase inhibitor that is involved in lipid metabolism and angiogenesis. Animal studies have suggested that the ANGPTL4 protein is modulated by the gut microbiota, possibly through increased concentrations of SCFA, such as C4, found in whole-fat milk or as a result of fermentation of inulin. This study investigated whether a standardised diet either high in fat content or supplemented with inulin powder would increase plasma ANGPTL4 in overweight men and whether this increase was mediated through a compositional change of the gut microbiota. The study had a crossover design with three arms, where participants were given a standardised isoenergetic diet supplemented with inulin powder, whole-fat milk or water (control). Plasma and urine samples were collected before and after each intervention period. Faecal samples and adipose tissue biopsies were collected after each intervention period. The study included twenty-one participants of whom eighteen completed the study. The dietary interventions did not change ANGPTL4 plasma concentration, nor was plasma ANGPTL4 associated with plasma lipids, TAG or NEFA concentration. The relative abundance of bifidobacteria following the inulin diet was higher, compared with the control diet. However, the changes in microbiota were not associated with plasma ANGPTL4 and the overall composition of the microbiota did not change between the dietary periods. Although weight was maintained throughout the dietary periods, weight was negatively associated with plasma ANGPTL4 concentration. In the adipose tissue, ANGPTL4 expression was correlated with leptin expression, but not with hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) expression.
Magnetic reconnection can occur in current sheets separating magnetic fields sheared by any angle and of arbitrarily different amplitudes. In such asymmetric and non-coplanar systems, it is not yet understood what the orientation of the X-line will be. Studying how this orientation is determined locally by the reconnection process is important to understand systems such as the Earth magnetopause, where reconnection occurs in regions with large differences in upstream plasma and field properties. This study aims at determining what the local X-line orientation is for different upstream magnetic shear angles in an asymmetric set-up relevant to the Earth’s magnetopause. We use two-dimensional hybrid simulations and vary the simulation plane orientation with regard to the fixed magnetic field profile and search for the plane maximizing the reconnection rate. We find that the plane defined by the bisector of upstream fields maximizes the reconnection rate and this appears not to depend on the magnetic shear angle, domain size or upstream plasma and asymmetries.
Tangential current sheets are ubiquitous in space plasmas and yet hard to describe with a kinetic equilibrium. In this paper, we use a semi-analytical model, the BAS model, which provides a steady ion distribution function for a tangential asymmetric current sheet and we prove that an ion kinetic equilibrium produced by this model remains steady in a fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulation even if the electron distribution function does not satisfy the time independent Vlasov equation. We then apply this equilibrium to look at the dependence of magnetic reconnection simulations on their initial conditions. We show that, as the current sheet evolves from a symmetric to an asymmetric upstream plasma, the reconnection rate is impacted and the X line and the electron flow stagnation point separate from one another and start to drift. For the simulated systems, we investigate the overall evolution of the reconnection process via the classical signatures discussed in the literature and searched in the Magnetospheric MultiScale data. We show that they seem robust and do not depend on the specific details of the internal structure of the initial current sheet.
We present preliminary results on a processing protocol by chemical activation that transforms organic waste product such as coconut husk into high surface area activated carbon. Dried raw materials of the coconut husk were carbonized anaerobically into char. The char was impregnated with KOH of different ratios and were activated at 800°C and 900°C. The transmission electron microscope was used to acquire structural and morphological information of the activated carbon, and the surface area and porosity analysis were performed using Micromeritics ASAP 2020 analyzer. The activated carbons show both micropores and mesopores with specific surface area as high as 2900m2/g.
Under- and over-nutrition during gestation may influence fetal hypothalamic development resulting in individuals predisposed to adverse health effects. This study examined fetuses from obese and control ewes to determine whether dam obesity alters hypothalamic expression of fetal appetite regulatory genes. A second objective was to contrast the expression of appetite regulatory genes in ewes that become the most obese to those that remained in moderate body condition on the same energy-rich diet. Multiparous, western white-faced ewes were weighed and individually fed 100% (control) or 150% (obese) of National Research Council requirements from day 60 before mating until day 75 of gestation. At day 75 of gestation, fetuses were collected and weighed. Hypothalamic tissue from fetal lambs and dams was collected and frozen for mRNA extraction. Dam obesity (P ⩾ 0.16), fetal sex (P ⩾ 0.44) or their interaction (P ⩾ 0.42) did not affect the relative expression of fetal hypothalamic regulators of appetite, including neuropeptide Y, agouti-related protein, pro-opiomelanocortin, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and receptors for leptin. Maternal obesity at day 75 of gestation in ewes did not affect developmental mechanisms responsible for the expression of fetal appetite regulatory genes and would not be expected to predispose offspring to adult-onset obesity through disrupted appetite regulation at this developmental time point. In the ewe, appetite regulatory genes did not differ (P > 0.20) with ewe adiposity; however, expression of estrogen receptor α, but not β (P = 0.37), in the medial basal hypothalamus was greater (P = 0.04) in obese than in control ewes.
The U.S. healthcare system continually confronts the challenge of controlling costs, improving quality and patient safety, and increasing or maintaining patient access to care. Payors and purchasers of healthcare (both public and private) strive to develop mechanisms to guarantee that they are purchasing the highest-value care – seeking to ensure that amounts paid take into account and provide incentives encouraging the delivery of high-quality, cost-efficient care. Through “value-based purchasing” (“VBP”) strategies, healthcare payors and purchasers are transforming from passive payors of claims (as in a traditional fee for service system) to active purchasers of quality care. To date, employers, health plans, and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (“CMS”) have implemented well over 100 VBP programs. However, progress is slower than anticipated. As the Institute of Medicine (“IOM”) and others have noted, adoption of VBP reforms may be hampered by legal barriers arising from a number of state and federal laws. The goal of this paper is to identify potential state and federal legal impediments to implementing VBP in healthcare.
Chihuahueños Bog (2925 m) in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico contains one of the few records of late-glacial and postglacial development of the mixed conifer forest in southwestern North America. The Chihuahueños Bog record extends to over 15,000 cal yr BP. AnArtemisiasteppe, then an openPiceawoodland grew around a small pond until ca. 11,700 cal yr BP whenPinus ponderosabecame established. C/N ratios,δ13C andδ15N values indicate both terrestrial and aquatic organic matter was incorporated into the sediment. Higher percentages of aquatic algae and elevated C/N ratios indicate higher lake levels at the opening of the Holocene, but a wetland developed subsequently as climate warmed. From ca. 8500 to 6400 cal yr BP the pond desiccated in what must have been the driest period of the Holocene there. C/N ratios declined to their lowest Holocene levels, indicating intense decomposition in the sediment. Wetter conditions returned after 6400 cal yr BP, with conversion of the site to a sedge bog as groundwater levels rose. Higher charcoal influx rates after 6400 cal yr BP probably result from greater biomass production rates. Only minor shifts in the overstory species occurred during the Holocene, suggesting that mixed conifer forest dominated throughout the record.
We investigate the evolution of a finite release of fluid into an infinite, two-dimensional, horizontal, porous slab saturated with a fluid of different density and viscosity. The vertical boundaries of the slab are impermeable and the released fluid spreads as a gravity current along a horizontal boundary. At early times the released fluid fills the entire height of the layer, and the governing equation admits a self-similar solution that is a function of the viscosity ratio between the two fluids. This early similarity solution describes a tilting interface with tips propagating as x ∝ t1/2. At late times the released fluid has spread along the boundary and the height of the current is much smaller than the thickness of the layer. The governing equation simplifies and admits a different similarity solution that is independent of the viscosity ratio. This late similarity solution describes a point release of fluid in a semi-infinite porous half-space, where the tip of the interface propagates as x ∝ t1/3. The same simplification of the governing equation occurs if the viscosity of the released fluid is much higher than the viscosity of the ambient fluid. We have obtained an expression for the time when the solution transitions from the early to the late self-similar regime. The transition time increases monotonically with increasing viscosity ratio. The transition period during which the solution is not self-similar also increases monotonically with increasing viscosity ratio, for mobility ratios larger than unity. Numerical computations describing the full evolution of the governing equation show good agreement with the theoretical results. Estimates of the spreading of injected fluids over long times are important for geological storage of CO2, and for the migration of pollutants in aquifers. In all cases it is important to be able to anticipate when the spreading regime transitions from x ∝ t1/2 to x ∝ t1/3.
When he appears as a Ghost he had a countenance more in sorrow than in anger.
(Shakespeare, Hamlet, I.iii.232)
Ursula Hess, Department of Psychology, University of Quebec at Montreal. Reginald B. Adams, Jr., Department of Psychology, Tufts University. Robert E. Kleck, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College. Preparation of this manuscript was supported by a grant from the Fonds de Formation des Chercheurs et l'Aide à la Recherche to Ursula Hess and Robert E. Kleck. We would like to thank Pierre Philippot for his helpful comments on a previous draft and Francois Labelle for the creation of the “aliens.”
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Ursula Hess, Department of Psychology, University of Quebec at Montreal, CP 8888, Station A, Montreal, QC, H3C 3P8, Canada (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Humans are very sensitive to faces. Faces attract attention and have an important impact on our perception of a social interaction. Faces inform us about the gender, ethnicity, age, and state of health of our interaction partners and also convey information about their likely intelligence, maturity, dominance, sociability, and many other characteristics. In addition, human faces are able to communicate information about the emotions of others. Thus, faces provide us with important hints regarding the behaviors and intentions that we may expect from our interaction partners.
It is interesting that an important aspect of emotional expressions is that they also provide social information to the decoder.
This paper reports our effort to develop amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC) films for use as hermetic thin film coatings for mechanically-flexible neural electrodes. In our work, the a-SiC films were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using two distinct methods, namely a single precursor approach using trimethylsilane, and a dual precursor approach using methane (CH4) and silane (SiH4). The mechanical properties of films deposited on Si substrates were characterized using the wafer curvature and load-deflection methods. The effectiveness of the films as moisture barriers for polyimide substrates was characterized by measuring the leakage currents of SiC-coated interdigitated electrode structures soaked in PBS. A microfabricated prototype of the flat interface nerve electrode (FINE) based on a flexible polyimide substrate and a PECVD SiC capping layer was fabricated using a monolithic process based on conventional micromachining techniques. To facilitate this approach, a reactive ion etching process was developed that exhibited high etch rates and high selectively to the SiC films.
The ESA observatory INTEGRAL (International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) is dedicated to fine imaging and spectroscopy in the energy range 15 keV to 10 Mev with concurrent X-ray (3-35 keV) and optical monitoring. It was launched on October 17, 2002 and has been succesfully operating ever since. Its two main instruments the spectrometer SPI – optimized for high resolution spectroscopy – and the imager IBIS – optimized for for high resolution imaging – are complemented by the X-ray monitor JEM-X and the optical monitor OMC. All the high energy instruments use coded mask techniques, allowing imaging in the gamma-ray range and combining wide fields of view with high spatial resolution. The presentation gives an overview of the unique properties of INTEGRAL.