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Attendance is critical to the success of any business or industry. As a result, most businesses and institutions require a system to track staff attendance. On the other hand, cloud computing technology is being utilized in the human resource management sector. It may be an excellent option for processing and storing large amounts of data and improving management effectiveness to a desirable level. Hence, this paper examines cloud infrastructures for employee attendance management in which the articles are categorized into three groups. The results show that cloud infrastructure has a significant and positive impact on the management of employee attendance systems. Also, the results reveal that the radio frequency identification authentication protocol protects the privacy of tags and readers against database memory. When references operate properly, they help the people concerned and society by making workplaces more efficient and safer.
We aim to describe the early and upto 16 months follow-up of post-coronavirus disease (COVID), multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), with special reference to cardiac involvement.
This cohort non-interventional descriptive study included patients <18 years admitted between May, 2020 and April, 2021. Based on underlying similarities, children were classified as post-COVID MIS-C with overlapping Kawasaki Disease, MIS-C with no overlapping Kawasaki Disease, and MIS-C with shock. Post-discharge, patients were followed at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 16 months.
Forty-one patients predominantly males (73%), at median age of 7 years (range 0.2–16 years) fulfilled the World Health Organisation criteria for MIS-C. Cardiac involvement was seen in 15 (36.5%); impaired left ventricle (LV) function in 5 (12.2%), coronary artery involvement in 10 (24.4%), pericardial effusion in 6 (14.6%) patients, and no arrhythmias. There were two hospital deaths (4.9%), both in MIS-C shock subgroup (2/10, 20%). At 1 month, there was persistent LV dysfunction in 2/5, coronary artery abnormalities in 7/10, and pericardial effusion resolved completely in all patients. By 6 months, LV function returned to normal in all but coronary abnormalities persisted in two patients. At last follow-up (median 9.8 months, interquartile range 2–16 months), in 36/38 (94.7%) patients, coronary artery dilatation was persistent in 2 (20%) patients.
Children with MIS-C have a good early outcome, though MIS-C with shock can be life-threatening subgroup in a resource-constrained country setting. On midterm follow-up, there is normalisation of LV function in all and recovery of coronary abnormalities in 80% of patients.
Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder with substantial heritability. The use of endophenotypes may help clarify its aetiology. Measures from the smooth pursuit and antisaccade eye movement tasks have been identified as endophenotypes for schizophrenia in twin and family studies. However, the genetic basis of the overlap between schizophrenia and these oculomotor markers is largely unknown. Here, we tested whether schizophrenia polygenic risk scores (PRS) were associated with oculomotor performance in the general population.
Analyses were based on the data of 2956 participants (aged 30–95) of the Rhineland Study, a community-based cohort study in Bonn, Germany. Genotyping was performed on Omni-2.5 exome arrays. Using summary statistics from a recent meta-analysis based on the two largest schizophrenia genome-wide association studies to date, we quantified genetic risk for schizophrenia by creating PRS at different p value thresholds for genetic markers. We examined associations between PRS and oculomotor performance using multivariable regression models.
Higher PRS were associated with higher antisaccade error rate and latency, and lower antisaccade amplitude gain. PRS showed inconsistent patterns of association with smooth pursuit velocity gain and were not associated with saccade rate during smooth pursuit or performance on a prosaccade control task.
There is an overlap between genetic determinants of schizophrenia and oculomotor endophenotypes. Our findings suggest that the mechanisms that underlie schizophrenia also affect oculomotor function in the general population.
For any foreign investor, protection of their investment is a primary concern in host states. National legislations and BITs usually provide legal security to them so that they can exercise their desired economic freedom in host countries. Without legal safeguards for their investments, they will not be motivated to invest their capital further. Like other host states, generally, the national laws and BITs of Bangladesh provide significant investment protection guarantees. This paper will discuss how far the protection through judicial or arbitral settlement is established in the legal framework and BITs of Bangladesh. Dispute settlement mechanisms in Bangladesh, various ICSID cases involving Bangladesh, and conflicts between Bangladesh and foreign investors are discussed. The paper also covers the issues and challenges of judicial arrangements in Bangladesh, and findings show that dispute settlement arrangements in Bangladesh are not up to international standards and require significant development. Last, recommendations are provided for consideration.
A household-level constant visual deterrent advocacy campaign to reduce tobacco intake was conducted in rural Bangladesh.
To evaluate smoking tobacco expenditure by campaign components.
We conducted a single-blind clustered randomized controlled trial on 630 adult male household heads from 16 chars (riverine islands) in rural northern Bangladesh, between November 2018 and January 2019. Intervention allotment was randomized at the char level to minimize spillovers, with 8 chars in treatment and control groups each. The intervention provided households in treatment chars (n = 323) with two visual warning posters, detailing the health effects of tobacco on oneself and external actors, to be hung inside the household for 4 weeks. Households in control chars (n = 307) received nothing. Reported daily smoking (log) tobacco expenditure values were the primary outcome of interest.
Final analysis was conducted using 251 and 210 smokers in treatment and control chars respectively. The intervention reduced relative smoking tobacco expenditure by 12.8% (95% CI −31.45 to 5.81) but was not statistically significant (P-value = 0.163). Weak to moderate emotional reactions to the posters was identified as a reason for the statistical insignificance.
For a visual anti-tobacco intervention to have a substantial impact, it must induce strong emotional responses.
This study aims to assess the impact of a behavioural intervention, in the form of a self-monitoring record-keeping logbook, in reducing smoking tobacco expenditure amongst adult male household heads in rural Bangladesh.
The experiment was designed as a single-blind clustered randomised controlled trial utilising two-stage random sampling. A total of 650 adult male household heads were sampled from 16 chars (riverine islands) from Gaibandha, Northern Bangladesh, with eight chars in treatment and control groups each, between November 2018 and January 2019. The intervention consisted of a logbook to record daily smoking tobacco intake for 4 weeks provided only to participants in treatment chars (n = 332) while households in control chars received nothing (n = 318).
Final analysis was conducted using 222 and 210 households in the treatment and control chars respectively. The logbook intervention had a significant impact (P-value = 0.040) on reducing daily tobacco expenditure by 14% (α = 95%; CI: −0.273, −0.008) for the treatment group relative to the control group based on a difference-in-difference estimator. This is equivalent to a reduction of 20 cigarettes or 140 bidis smoked in a month.
Our minimal contact intervention successfully induced a reduction in smoking tobacco expenditure, which could effectively be incorporated with existing programs in the char regions of Bangladesh.
Soon after the First World War, Muslim India was involved in a mass political convulsion of a composite nature. Its components were two parallel and mutually linked agitations: a tense and explosive pan-Islamic emotionalism apprehensive of the fate of the defeated Ottoman empire, of the Arab lands (especially the Hijāz), and of the institution of the caliphate; and an alliance with the Hindus in the nationalist and anti-imperialist mass-movement led by the Indian National Congress. These two elements of the agitation were directed against linked objectives: pressure on the government in Britain for a more sympathetic approach in deciding the fate of the vanquished Ottoman empire; and pressure on the British government in India for greater concessions towards self-determination.
The way for a working alliance with Congress had been prepared since 1911 by a series of national and international developments. The annulment of the partition of Bengal (1911), which deprived the Muslims of that province of the political and economic advantage conceded to them earlier, had convinced the Muslim leadership of the instability of British patronage. British action, inaction, or indifference on such developments as the Italian occupation of Libya, or the extension of French control over Morocco, the Balkan War, the suspected designs of a partition of Persia (and possibly Turkey) between Russia and Great Britain, had built up the image of British imperialism as an ally of all European imperialist thrusts directed against the Muslim lands. The annulment of the partition of Bengal had also taught the Muslim political leaders the lesson that the policy of loyalism, initiated by Sayyid Ahmad Khān and followed ever since, did not pay as rich political dividends as the organised movement of political opposition conducted by Congress, or even the terrorism of extremist Hindus.
Urdu is the language spoken by the Muslims and by certain non-Muslim elements in the urban areas of West Pakistan and north-western India. The Sufi shaykhs, engaged in the dual task of converting the non-Muslims around them, and of evolving a technique of religious communication with their illeducated disciples, used an early form of Urdu for their popular writings, reserving the use of Persian more and more for learned dialectics. Until the beginning of the nineteenth century, Urdu prose had consisted either of theological literature with an arabicized syntax or of ornate magical romances. The Mutiny of 1857, its failure, and the liquidation of Muslim supremacy in Delhi, mark a sudden revolution in Urdu poetry. Urdu fiction had begun in the later eighteenth century with the dastans of the Amir Hamza cycle. The Muslim historical novel in the hands of 'Abd al-Halim Sharar romanticized the Muslim past in stereotyped colour and imagery and rather cheap sentimentality.
I have borrowed the term “frontier” from the late Professor Joseph Schacht for the Islamic marches where Islamic political power and Islam were once firmly entrenched. Unlike him I would apply this term also to the Islamic marches in Europe: Spain and Sicily. Division of Islamic lands into geographical categories “The Central Islamic Lands” and the “Further Islamic Lands,” has also been adopted in the recently published Cambridge History of Islam.