To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects, Surveillance and Research reports a rise in the prevalence rate of spina bifida in Japan. We determined first-trimester folate status of Hokkaido women and identified potential predictors. Participants were 15 266 pregnant women of the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children’s Health Cohort. Data were extracted from self-reported questionnaires and biochemical assay results. Demographic determinants of low folate status were younger maternal age (adjusted OR (AOR) 1·48; 95 % CI 1·32, 1·66), lower educational level (AOR 1·27; 95 % CI 1·17, 1·39) and lower annual income (AOR 1·11; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·22). Plasma cotinine concentrations of 1·19–65·21 nmol/l increased the risk of low folate status (AOR 1·20; 95 % CI 1·10, 1·31) and concentrations >65·21 nmol/l further increased the risk (AOR 1·91; 95 % CI 1·70, 2·14). The most favourable predictor was use of folic acid (FA) supplements (AOR 0·19; 95 % CI 0·17, 0·22). Certain socio-demographic factors influence folate status among pregnant Japanese women. Modifiable negative and positive predictors were active and passive tobacco smoking and use of FA supplements. Avoiding both active and passive tobacco smoking and using FA supplements could improve the folate status of Japanese women.
During the process of follicular atresia, cells are observed to invade the zona pellucida (invasive cells) where they presumably play an important role in eliminating degraded oocytes. Although our preliminary studies have suggested that these cells may originate from granulosa cells and not from macrophages, a detailed morphological analysis of the cells has not been conducted. The objective of this study was to characterize the cells more precisely by electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry, using sexually immature mice. The results show that the invasive cells were first observed within advanced primary (non-antral) atretic follicles. The cells frequently contained cytoplasmic lysosome-like granules after passing through the zona pellucida. F4/80 and Mac-1, reported as macrophage-specific antibodies, were reactive with the cells in most cases, but some immunonegative invasive cells were also observed. The ultrastructural features of the invasive cells were quite similar to those of granulosa cells, not macrophages. Gap junctions, which are typical cytoplasmic structures of epithelial cells, were frequently identified between neighbouring cells. Although direct evidence indicating a contribution by the cells to the elimination of degenerated oocytes was not obtained, our results strongly suggest that the invasive cells originated from granulosa cells surrounding the zona pellucida, and that they may have a macrophage-like cell function for the elimination of oocytes from atretic follicles in mice.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.