To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Fontan baffle punctures and creation of Fontan fenestration for cardiac catheterisation procedures remain challenging especially due to the heavy calcification of prosthetic material and complex anatomy.
We sought to evaluate our experience using radiofrequency current via surgical electrocautery needle for Fontan baffle puncture to facilitate diagnostic, electrophysiology, and interventional procedures.
A retrospective chart review of all Fontan patients (pts) who underwent Fontan baffle puncture using radiofrequency energy via surgical electrocautery from three centres were performed from January 2011 to July 2021.
A total of 19 pts underwent 22 successful Fontan baffle puncture. The median age and weight were 17 (3–36 years) and 55 (14–88) kg, respectively. The procedural indications for Fontan fenestration creation included: diagnostic study (n = 1), atrial septostomy and stenting (n = 1), electrophysiology study and ablation procedures (n = 8), Fontan baffle stenting for Fontan failure including protein-losing enteropathy (n = 7), and occlusion of veno-venous collaterals (n = 2) for cyanosis. The type of Fontan baffles included: extra-cardiac conduits (n = 12), lateral tunnel (n = 5), classic atrio-pulmonary connection (n = 1), and intra-cardiac baffle (n = 1). A Fontan baffle puncture was initially attempted using traditional method in 6 pts and Baylis radiofrequency trans-septal system in 2 pts unsuccessfully. In all pts, Fontan baffle puncture using radiofrequency energy via electrocautery needle was successful. The radiofrequency energy utilised was (10–50 W) and required 1–5 attempts for 2–5 seconds. There were no vascular or neurological complications.
Radiofrequency current delivery using surgical electrocautery facilitates Fontan baffle puncture in patients with complex and calcified Fontan baffles for diagnostic, interventional, and electrophysiology procedures.
Anomalous aortic origin of the left coronary artery with intraseptal course is a rare coronary anomaly associated with an increased risk of myocardial ischaemia. The role and techniques for surgical intervention are evolving, with numerous novel surgical techniques for this challenging anatomy reported in the last 5 years. We report our single-centre experience with surgical repair of intraseptal anomalous left coronary artery in the paediatric population, including clinical presentation, evaluation, and short- to mid-term outcomes.
All patients with coronary anomalies presenting to our institution undergo standardised clinical evaluation. Five patients aged 4 to 17 years underwent surgical intervention for intraseptal anomalous aortic origin of the left coronary artery between 2012 and 2022. Surgical techniques included coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 1), direct reimplantation with limited supra-arterial myotomy via right ventriculotomy (n = 1), and transconal supra-arterial myotomy with right ventricular outflow tract patch reconstruction (n = 3).
All patients had evidence of haemodynamically significant coronary compression, and three had evidence of inducible myocardial ischaemia pre-operatively. There were no deaths or major complications. Median follow-up was 6.1 months (range 3.1–33.4 months). Patients who underwent supra-arterial myotomy (with or without reimplantation) had improved coronary flow and perfusion based on stress imaging and catheterisation data.
Surgical approaches to intraseptal anomalous left coronary artery with evidence of myocardial ischaemia continue to evolve, with new techniques demonstrating promising improvement in coronary perfusion. Further studies are warranted to determine long-term outcomes and refine indications for repair.
To determine the safety and feasibility of over-expansion of right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduits during transcatheter pulmonary valve placement.
Transcatheter pulmonary valve placement is an alternative to surgical pulmonary valve replacement. Traditionally, it was thought to be unsafe to expand a conduit to >110% of its original size.
This retrospective cohort study from two centers includes patients with right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduits with attempted transcatheter pulmonary valve placement from 2010 to 2017. Demographic, procedural, echocardiographic and follow-up data, and complications were evaluated in control and overdilation (to >110% original conduit size) groups.
One hundred and seventy-two patients (51 overdilation and 121 control) had attempted transcatheter pulmonary valve placement (98% successful). The overdilation group was younger (11.2 versus 16.7 years, p < 0.001) with smaller conduits (15 versus 22 mm, p < 0.001); however, the final valve size was not significantly different (19.7 versus 20.2 mm, p = 0.2). Baseline peak echocardiographic gradient was no different (51.8 versus 55.6 mmHg, p = 0.3). Procedural complications were more frequent in overdilation (18%) than control (7%) groups (most successfully addressed during the procedure). One patient from each group required urgent surgical intervention, with no procedural mortality. Follow-up echocardiographic peak gradients were similar (24.1 versus 26 mmHg, p = 0.5).
Over-expansion of right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduits during transcatheter pulmonary valve placement can be performed successfully. Procedural complications are more frequent with conduit overdilation, but there was no difference in the rate of life-threatening complications. There was no difference in valve function at most recent follow-up, and no difference in rate of reintervention. The long-term outcomes of transcatheter pulmonary valve placement with conduit over-expansion requires further study.
Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury leading to vocal cord paralysis is a known complication of cardiothoracic surgery. Its occurrence during interventional catheterisation procedures has been documented in case reports, but there have been no studies to determine an incidence.
To establish the incidence of left recurrent laryngeal nerve injury leading to vocal cord paralysis after left pulmonary artery stenting, patent ductus arteriosus device closure and the combination of the procedures either consecutively or simultaneously.
Members of the Congenital Cardiovascular Interventional Study Consortium were asked to perform a retrospective analysis to identify cases of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury after the aforementioned procedures. Twelve institutions participated in the analysis. They also contributed the total number of each procedure performed at their respective institutions for statistical purposes.
Of the 1337 patients who underwent left pulmonary artery stent placement, six patients (0.45%) had confirmed vocal cord paralysis. 4001 patients underwent patent ductus arteriosus device closure, and two patients (0.05%) developed left vocal cord paralysis. Patients who underwent both left pulmonary artery stent placement and patent ductus arteriosus device closure had the highest incidence of vocal cord paralysis which occurred in 4 of the 26 patients (15.4%). Overall, 92% of affected patients in our study population had resolution of symptoms.
Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury is a rare complication of left pulmonary artery stent placement or patent ductus arteriosus device closure. However, the incidence is highest in patients undergoing both procedures either consecutively or simultaneously. Additional research is necessary to determine contributing factors that might reduce the risk of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury.
Ostium secundum atrial septal defects are mostly closed in the cardiac catheterisation laboratories using either Amplatzer® (Abbott Laboratories, IL) atrial septal occluder, Gore® Cardioform septal occluder and more recently using the recently approved (US FDA approval June 2019) Gore® Cardioform atrial septal defect occluder (W. L. Gore & Associates, AZ). Similar to any new device in the market, there is a learning curve to the deployment of this device. We therefore aim to report the key features about this new Gore Cardioform atrial septal defect occluder device with special emphasis on technical aspects that can be employed during transcatheter closure of challenging ostium secundum atrial septal defects using this device.
Multicentre research databases can provide insights into healthcare processes to improve outcomes and make practice recommendations for novel approaches. Effective audits can establish a framework for reporting research efforts, ensuring accurate reporting, and spearheading quality improvement. Although a variety of data auditing models and standards exist, barriers to effective auditing including costs, regulatory requirements, travel, and design complexity must be considered.
Materials and methods:
The Congenital Cardiac Research Collaborative conducted a virtual data training initiative and remote source data verification audit on a retrospective multicentre dataset. CCRC investigators across nine institutions were trained to extract and enter data into a robust dataset on patients with tetralogy of Fallot who required neonatal intervention. Centres provided de-identified source files for a randomised 10% patient sample audit. Key auditing variables, discrepancy types, and severity levels were analysed across two study groups, primary repair and staged repair.
Of the total 572 study patients, data from 58 patients (31 staged repairs and 27 primary repairs) were source data verified. Amongst the 1790 variables audited, 45 discrepancies were discovered, resulting in an overall accuracy rate of 97.5%. High accuracy rates were consistent across all CCRC institutions ranging from 94.6% to 99.4% and were reported for both minor (1.5%) and major discrepancies type classifications (1.1%).
Findings indicate that implementing a virtual multicentre training initiative and remote source data verification audit can identify data quality concerns and produce a reliable, high-quality dataset. Remote auditing capacity is especially important during the current COVID-19 pandemic.
An extremely low birthweight infant (940 grams) with a rare variant of obstructed infracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous return underwent stenting of the venous duct as bridge to later surgical intervention. While technically challenging, this procedure represents a bridge to surgery for infants who might otherwise not be surgical candidates.
Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery is the second leading cause of sudden cardiac arrest/death in young athletes in the United States of America. Limited data are available regarding family history in this patient population.
Patients were evaluated prospectively from 12/2012 to 02/2017 in the Coronary Anomalies Program at Texas Children’s Hospital. Relevant family history included the presence of CHD, sudden cardiac arrest/death, arrhythmia/pacemaker use, cardiomyopathy, and atherosclerotic coronary artery disease before the age of 50 years. The presence of one or more of these in 1st- or 2nd-degree relatives was considered significant.
Of 168 unrelated probands (171 patients total) included, 36 (21%) had significant family history involving 19 (53%) 1st-degree and 17 (47%) 2nd-degree relatives. Positive family history led to cardiology referral in nine (5%) patients and the presence of abnormal tests/symptoms in the remaining patients. Coronary anomalies in probands with positive family history were anomalous right (27), anomalous left (five), single right coronary artery (two), myocardial bridge (one), and anomalous circumflex coronary artery (one). Conditions present in their family members included sudden cardiac arrest/death (15, 42%), atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (14, 39%), cardiomyopathy (12, 33%), CHD (11, 31%), coronary anomalies (3, 8%), myocardial bridge (1, 3%), long-QT syndrome (2, 6%), and Wolff–Parkinson–White (1, 3%).
In patients with anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery and/or myocardial bridges, there appears to be familial clustering of cardiac diseases in approximately 20% of patients, half of these with early occurrence of sudden cardiac arrest/death in the family.
Transcatheter right ventricle decompression in neonates with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum is technically challenging, with risk of cardiac perforation and death. Further, despite successful right ventricle decompression, re-intervention on the pulmonary valve is common. The association between technical factors during right ventricle decompression and the risks of complications and re-intervention are not well described.
This is a multicentre retrospective study among the participating centres of the Congenital Catheterization Research Collaborative. Between 2005 and 2015, all neonates with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum and attempted transcatheter right ventricle decompression were included. Technical factors evaluated included the use and characteristics of radiofrequency energy, maximal balloon-to-pulmonary valve annulus ratio, infundibular diameter, and right ventricle systolic pressure pre- and post-valvuloplasty (BPV). The primary end point was cardiac perforation or death; the secondary end point was re-intervention.
A total of 99 neonates underwent transcatheter right ventricle decompression at a median of 3 days (IQR 2–5) of age, including 63 patients by radiofrequency and 32 by wire perforation of the pulmonary valve. There were 32 complications including 10 (10.5%) cardiac perforations, of which two resulted in death. Cardiac perforation was associated with the use of radiofrequency (p=0.047), longer radiofrequency duration (3.5 versus 2.0 seconds, p=0.02), and higher maximal radiofrequency energy (7.5 versus 5.0 J, p<0.01) but not with patient weight (p=0.09), pulmonary valve diameter (p=0.23), or infundibular diameter (p=0.57). Re-intervention was performed in 36 patients and was associated with higher post-intervention right ventricle pressure (median 60 versus 50 mmHg, p=0.041) and residual valve gradient (median 15 versus 10 mmHg, p=0.046), but not with balloon-to-pulmonary valve annulus ratio, atmospheric pressure used during BPV, or the presence of a residual balloon waist during BPV. Re-intervention was not associated with any right ventricle anatomic characteristics, including pulmonary valve diameter.
Technical factors surrounding transcatheter right ventricle decompression in pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum influence the risk of procedural complications but not the risk of future re-intervention. Cardiac perforation is associated with the use of radiofrequency energy, as well as radiofrequency application characteristics. Re-intervention after right ventricle decompression for pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum is common and relates to haemodynamic measures surrounding initial BPV.
Background: Stenting for aortic coarctation has been shown to be effective in the short term. The safety and longer term efficacy of transcatheter therapy, however, must be well established if the technique is to be widely accepted as an alternative to surgery. In order to determine the frequency, spectrum, and outcome of injury to the aortic wall caused by angioplasty or stenting of aortic coarctation, the nomenclature of mural injury in these patients must be adapted to the conditions of transcatheter therapy. Methods and Results: Between 1989 and July 2005, we inserted stents in 153 patients with aortic coarctation, their median age being 15.8 years. Prior aortic interventions had been performed in 98 patients, and preexisting aneurysms were observed in 19. Stenting resulted in a significant reduction of the gradient across the site of coarctation, from a median of 30 millimetres of mercury to zero (p less than 0.001), with a residual gradient within the aortic arch of 20 millimetres of mercury or more in 5% of patients. Acute injuries to the aortic wall, other than therapeutic tears, were observed in 3 patients (2%), none of whom required surgery. At median follow-up of 2.5 years, this being more than 5 years in 30 patients, 4 patients had died, albeit none from complications relating to stenting or catheterization. Acute injuries to the aortic wall did not progress, and new aneurysms were observed in 6% of patients subsequent to follow-up imaging. Stent fractures, and jailed or partially covered brachiocephalic vessels, were observed in 12, and 49, patients, respectively, but did not result in haemodynamic or embolic complications. Conclusions: Stenting for aortic coarctation results in consistent relief of the gradient, and few serious complications in the short and intermediate term. Serious injuries to the aortic wall are uncommon in our experience, and can be minimized with a focus on technical measures, such as pre-dilation before stenting.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.