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Cognitive impairment is common in people with mental disorders, leading to transdiagnostic classification based on cognitive characteristics. However, few studies have used this approach for intellectual abilities and functional outcomes.
The present study aimed to classify people with mental disorders based on intellectual abilities and functional outcomes in a data-driven manner.
Seven hundred and forty-nine patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression disorder or autism spectrum disorder and 1030 healthy control subjects were recruited from facilities in various regions of Japan. Two independent k-means cluster analyses were performed. First, intelligence variables (current estimated IQ, premorbid IQ, and IQ discrepancy) were included. Second, number of work hours per week was included instead of premorbid IQ.
Four clusters were identified in the two analyses. These clusters were specifically characterised in terms of IQ discrepancy in the first cluster analysis, whereas the work variable was the most salient feature in the second cluster analysis. Distributions of clinical diagnoses in the two cluster analyses showed that all diagnoses were unevenly represented across the clusters.
Intellectual abilities and work outcomes are effective classifiers in transdiagnostic approaches. The results of our study also suggest the importance of diagnosis-specific strategies to support functional recovery in people with mental disorders.
Effect of Ni:Al blending ratio on porous structure of porous nickel aluminides fabricated through reactive synthesis with space holder particles were investigated. Fabricated porous nickel aluminides had large pores derived from NaCl space holder particles and small pores derived from reactions between Ni and Al. Porosity and size of the small pores increased with increasing Al content in the raw powder mixture. Compressive property of porous NiAl are also investigated. porous NiAl exhibited good energy-absorption properties with relatively high plateau stress, high plateau end strain, and relatively flat plateau stress. This study suggests the possibility of intermetallic-based porous materials as high-performance energy absorber.
We have examined tensile properties of a novel heat-resistant aluminium (Al)-based alloy (with a composition of Al-5Mg-3.5Zn (at%)) strengthened by the T-Al6Mg11Zn11 (cubic) intermetallic phase at various temperatures. The tested specimens of the present alloy were solution-treated at 450°C for 24 h and subsequently aged at 200 or 300 oC for 1 h. The granular precipitates of the T phase were dispersed rather homogenously in the grain interior in the specimen aged at 300°C. In the specimen aged at 200°C, numerous fine precipitates with a mean size of ∼20 nm were observed in the α-Al matrix. The specimen pre-aged at 200°C for 1 h exhibited a superior strength to the conventional Al alloys at elevated temperatures ranging from 150 to 200°C (corresponding to service temperatures for compressor impellers in turbochargers).
A consistent description of the hydrogen permeation through metal membrane based on hydrogen chemical potential proposed has been explained in detail. The hydrogen flux is proportional to the PCT factor, fPCT, consistently, which reflects the shape of the pressure-composition-isotherm (PCT curve) of the material. In addition, in view of the PCT factor, fPCT, and the ductile-to-brittle transition hydrogen concentration, DBTC, a concept for alloy design with high hydrogen permeability and strong resistance to hydrogen embrittlement has been proposed. In this concept, it is important to design alloy composition with appropriate PCT curve under the given pressure and temperature condition. As an example, V–9 mol% Al alloy has been designed, which exhibits high hydrogen flux without brittle fracture under given condition. Thus, the new consistent description is useful not only for the understanding of the hydrogen permeation property but also for the alloy design.
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