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Lead sulfide (PbS) is having tremendous applications in the field of optoelectronics. Hence, a facile low temperature synthesis of PbS with different contents of terbium (Tb) has been achieved and investigated for structure–optic–dielectric–electrical properties. The structure confirmation was observed through the X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement process which approved a monophasic cubic structure. Rietveld refinement gives a best-fitting profile of the prepared products. The crystallite size was estimated to be in range of 15–21 nm. FT-Raman study also approved the single-phase PbS with all characteristic modes. For further confirmation of composition, homogeneity, and Tb in the final product, the EDX/SEM e-mapping was carried out. The morphological investigation was carried out through SEM which revealed that the shape and size are greatly influenced by Tb content addition in PbS. The energy gap (Eg) was estimated in the range of 1.42–1.62 eV for all Tb@PbS, and the largest Eg value was observed for 0.5 wt% Tb@PbS. The dielectric constant values are calculated in the range of 16–25 in the tested frequency region. The ac electrical conductivity was enhanced with frequency, and a charge transport mechanism is related to a correlated barrier hoping model in the prepared samples.
The present work describes a unique planar low-profile wideband circularly polarized Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO) antenna operating in the X-band, with pattern and polarization diversity over the entire axial-ratio bandwidth (ARBW). The design is unique in the sense that a simple grounded stub introduced between two linearly polarized monopole antennas has been used to realize wideband circular polarization, pattern diversity, and high isolation between antennas. The ARBW of the MIMO antenna is 2.45 GHz (8.11–10.56) 3 dB and its impedance matching bandwidth is 3.52 GHz (8.07–11.59). The isolation is better than 20 dB. The antenna can be easily adapted to operate other frequency bands by simple frequency scaling. It has been fabricated on an FR-4 substrate and its performance has been compared against several existing available antennas.
Mechanical properties of Pr (praseodymium)-doped ZnO thin films, deposited on a corning glass substrate and fused quartz at different deposition pressures using DC sputtering were investigated. Crystalline growth in Pr-doped ZnO thin films is more pronounced and improves at 10 mtorr deposition pressure. However, lower sputtering deposition pressure evoked deposition rates to the formation of polycrystalline films emerged in several crystal planes. Pr ions incorporated in the ZnO host lattice was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), AFM, and FESEM. XPS spectroscopy revealed the presence of Pr3+ and Pr4+ at the ZnO surface layer and it was in tandem with EDS mapping. Nanoindentation prior to scratch testing is used for analyzing deformation characteristics. Pr-doped ZnO thin films exhibit better hardness (9.89 ± 0.14 GPa) and Young’s modulus (112.12 ± 3.45 GPa) on the glass substrate. The crack propagation resistance parameter of the films was evaluated using initial critical load, Lc1 ∼ 2250.5 µN for the crack initiation and upper critical load Lc2 ∼ 2754.5 µN for film failure. Better crack propagation resistance was observed for films deposited at 10 mtorr sputtering pressure on both substrates, attributed to better crystalline nature of the films.
Light collection efficiency and specific molecular detection are crucial factors for the performance of bio-chemical molecule sensors. In this paper, the low optical-reflection silicon (Si) substrates which combine reduced optical reflectivity by light trapping effect and high Raman enhancement ability of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) coated textured Si substrates are investigated for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). A fast, single-step and highly controllable nanosecond (ns) laser processing technique is employed to fabricate textured Si substrates under ambient conditions. Parallel arrays of micro-pyramids are fabricated on Si surface by direct laser writing two-dimensional structures. SEM micrographs clearly show well-ordered surface features in the form of micro-pyramid shape with well-defined sharp tips on the laser processed Si substrates. The aggregation of Si micro/nanoparticles on Si surface forms nanocavities and nanogaps and further enhances the surface roughness in order to minimize the optical reflection. The low optical reflection Si substrates exhibit optical reflection below 15% over a broad wavelength range from 300 nm to 1200 nm. The textured Si substrates with high signal reproducibility are successfully applied as SERS substrates to detect a very small concentration of Rhodamine B molecules with an average enhancement factor of the order of ∼107. The low optical reflection and SERS signal amplification are also altered by the variation of laser pulse energy resulting into low optical reflection and high SERS signal intensity over the entire laser-patterned area. The effect of surface roughness on water contact angle was studied after the modification with Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), the surfaces show perfect superhydrophobicity with almost no water adhesion. This approach provides a novel high-speed and cost-effective method for fabricating SERS substrate with micro/nano-scale surfaces roughness and low optical reflection for high Raman signal enhancement.
Synthesis of differential-mode bandpass filter (BPF) with good common-mode suppression has been described and demonstrated on the basis of ring dielectric resonator (RDR) for high-performance communication system. A RDR with two pairs of feeding lines has been used to excite TE01δ-mode. This unique combination of feeding lines and the ring resonator creates a differential passband. Meanwhile, TM01δ-mode of the DR can also be excited to achieve common-mode rejection in the stopband. Transmission zeros are created in the lower and upper stopband to further improve the selectivity of the proposed BPF. A second-order differential BPF is designed, fabricated and its performance is measured to validate the concept. There is good agreement between simulated and measured results.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a metabolically flexible pathogen that has the extraordinary ability to sense and adapt to the continuously changing host environment experienced during decades of persistent infection. Mtb is continually exposed to endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) as part of normal aerobic respiration, as well as exogenous ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generated by the host immune system in response to infection. The magnitude of tuberculosis (TB) disease is further amplified by exposure to xenobiotics from the environment such as cigarette smoke and air pollution, causing disruption of the intracellular prooxidant–antioxidant balance. Both oxidative and reductive stresses induce redox cascades that alter Mtb signal transduction, DNA and RNA synthesis, protein synthesis and antimycobacterial drug resistance. As reviewed in this article, Mtb has evolved specific mechanisms to protect itself against endogenously produced oxidants, as well as defend against host and environmental oxidants and reductants found specifically within the microenvironments of the lung. Maintaining an appropriate redox balance is critical to the clinical outcome because several antimycobacterial prodrugs are only effective upon bioreductive activation. Proper homeostasis of oxido-reductive systems is essential for Mtb survival, persistence and subsequent reactivation. The progress and remaining deficiencies in understanding Mtb redox homeostasis are also discussed.
In this chapter, I argue for the global civil society as normatively and theoretically a new paradigm of global governance and also a possible emancipatory ‘cosmopolitan political project’ to the emerging challenges of democracy, justice and inclusive governance at the global level. Though global civil society is often perceived as a multilayered, contested and decentred space of associtionalism, I consider it an epic and irreversible ‘double movement’ of people seeking to transform hegemonic structures of global governance, protect human rights, minimize violence and increase the sphere of democratic life across the borderless world. And I suggest that this argument can be further explored, expanded and defended by offering at least four reasons.
First, I argue that globalization, benign or regressive, has created unique ‘political opportunity structures and processes’ rendering state-centric conventional theories of international relations and global governance completely irrelevant. Fuelled by the twin processes of associational and informational revolutions in the 1980s, global civil society has slowly and sturdily emerged as ‘a supranational sphere of social and political participation’ for a vast majority of people who have had not opportunity in the past to be heard in the hegemonic structures of international organizations. It is clear from the scope, reach and velocity of globalization that sovereignty of the modern nation-state has exhausted its imaginative power to continually secure the consent and allegiance of the population living under its shadow.
The origins of this book lie in the workshop of the Global Governance Research Network at the German Development Institute (DIE) in January 2007. The workshop expectedly brought together a brilliant, energetic and diverse group of senior scholars, policy makers and researchers from north and south setting forth a fruitful and productive process of introspection and reflection on emerging architectures of global governance. Encouraged by the instant consensus around some of the core ideas of the Global Governance Network, we immediately formulated a publishing project that understandably promised not only to examine ‘major power shifts’, but also broadened its net to include emerging powers and also ‘global civil society actors’ whom James Rosenau provocatively called ‘sovereignty free actors’ as major constituencies of the new global order (Rosenau 1990). As the world has become increasingly more globalized, more complex and also more vulnerable at this point of time, we undertake the task of comprehending and exploring political, economic, social and environmental processes of power shifts and prospects of deliberative democracy on a global scale. There is no doubt that global capitalism has come to witness one of the darkest and gloomiest periods in recent world history. Underlying this existential crisis is a deeper structural, political and moral crisis in the existing structures of global governance. Undoubtedly, the days of “casino capitalism” and “single superpower” are over as the world is keenly waiting for what Karl Polanyi would have called another ‘great transformation’.
The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of universal salt iodization (USI) on the prevalence of iodine deficiency in the population of an area previously known to have severe iodine deficiency in India.
In a cross-sectional survey, a total of 2860 subjects residing in fifty-three villages of four sub-districts of Gonda District were examined for goitre and urinary iodine concentration. Free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were also measured. Salt samples from households were collected for estimation of iodine content.
A reduction in goitre prevalence was observed from 69 % reported in 1982 to 27·7 % assessed in 2007. However, 34 % of villages still had very high endemicity of goitre (goitre prevalence >30 %). Twenty-three per cent of households consumed a negligible amount (<5 ppm) and 56 % of households consumed an insufficient amount (5–15 ppm) of iodine from salt.
Although there was an overall improvement in iodine nutrition as revealed by decreased goitre prevalence and increased median urinary iodine levels, there were several pockets of severe deficiency that require a more targeted approach. Poor coverage, the use of unpackaged crystal salt with inadequate iodine and the washing of salt before use by 90 % of rural households are the major causes of persisting iodine-deficiency disorders. This demonstrates lapses in USI implementation, lack of monitoring and the need to identify hot spots. We advocate strengthening the USI programme with a mass education component, the supply of adequately iodized salt and the implementation of complementary strategies for vulnerable groups, particularly neonates and lactating mothers.
A labyrinthine fistula is a frequent complication of long-standing unsafe chronic suppurative otitis media. It is characterized by a slowly progressive erosion of the bony labyrinth. In this paper we present our observations regarding the diagnosis and management in 50 patients with unsafe chronic suppurative otitis media with labyrinthine fistula.
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