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The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of universal salt iodization (USI) on the prevalence of iodine deficiency in the population of an area previously known to have severe iodine deficiency in India.
In a cross-sectional survey, a total of 2860 subjects residing in fifty-three villages of four sub-districts of Gonda District were examined for goitre and urinary iodine concentration. Free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were also measured. Salt samples from households were collected for estimation of iodine content.
A reduction in goitre prevalence was observed from 69 % reported in 1982 to 27·7 % assessed in 2007. However, 34 % of villages still had very high endemicity of goitre (goitre prevalence >30 %). Twenty-three per cent of households consumed a negligible amount (<5 ppm) and 56 % of households consumed an insufficient amount (5–15 ppm) of iodine from salt.
Although there was an overall improvement in iodine nutrition as revealed by decreased goitre prevalence and increased median urinary iodine levels, there were several pockets of severe deficiency that require a more targeted approach. Poor coverage, the use of unpackaged crystal salt with inadequate iodine and the washing of salt before use by 90 % of rural households are the major causes of persisting iodine-deficiency disorders. This demonstrates lapses in USI implementation, lack of monitoring and the need to identify hot spots. We advocate strengthening the USI programme with a mass education component, the supply of adequately iodized salt and the implementation of complementary strategies for vulnerable groups, particularly neonates and lactating mothers.
Our aim was to assess the immediate and short term results of closure of moderate and large patent arterial ducts using the self-expanding and repositionable Amplatzer device.
We attempted closure in 25 patients (10 Females and 15 males) using the Amplatzer occluder. Their median age was 48 months with a range from 8months to 26years and median weight of 14kg with a range from 4.5kg to 48kg. The mean ductal diameter was 4 (S.D 1.51mm). A 6F/7F long sheath was used to deliver the device. Follow up was performed with colour- flow mapping of the pulmonary trunk within 24 hours, at 3 months, and 6 months of closure.
Of the 25 patients, the device was placed successfully in 23. Concurrent angiography showed immediate closure in 12 patients, while 8 had trivial shunting and 3 had mild shunting. Within 24 hours, Doppler examination revealed complete closure in all but three patients, who had a mild residual shunt. Two attempts were unsuccessful. Both these patients underwent successful surgical ligation. All except one patient were discharged on the next day. Of the 23 patients, 15 (65%) have been followed up for 3months, while 8 (35%) have completed 6 months of follow-up. Of the three patients initially with mild residual flow, two had completely closed at 3 months The one remaining patient is yet to be seen at the 3 month follow-up. Thus, at 3 months, all patients studies had shown complete closure.
Antegrade transcatheter closure using the Amplatzer duct occluder is an efficacious treatment for bigger patent arterial ducts. Long-term follow-up is necessary to show sustained benefits and confirm the absence of side effects.
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