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Previous studies suggest that the Homeb silts of the Kuiseb valley, Namibia (i) accumulated in a dune-dammed lake, (ii) are end-point deposits, (iii) represent an aggrading river bed, and (iv) are slackwater deposits. Thus, they have been used alternatively as evidence of past drier conditions or past wetter conditions. Lithostratigraphic analysis of two sediment sequences at Homeb indicates sedimentation by aggradation of the Kuiseb River triggered by a transition from an arid to humid climate. OSL ages for the sequences were obtained by the SAR protocol on aliquots of 9.6-mm and 4.0-mm diameter and on single grains. Four-millimeter aliquot minimum ages closely approximate the single-grain minimum ages and are younger than 9.6-mm aliquot minimum and central ages. Based on these results, the small-aliquot (4-mm) approach appears to provide ages comparable to those obtained by the more laborious and time-consuming single-grain method. Minimum ages indicate rapid deposition of the Homeb Silts in at least two episodes centered at ∼15 ka and ∼6 ka during climate transitions from arid to humid. Flash floods eroded the valley fills during slightly more arid conditions.
Finite element modeling (FEM) has been used to evaluate microstructure-controlled stability of selected eggshells of Indian dinosaurs. Our study suggests that under static load the eggshell microstructure of Megaloolithus cylindricus displays a low magnitude of tensile stress over most of the spherolith. The magnitude of this tensile stress is lower than that displayed in M. jabalpurensis, M. baghensis, and Subtiliolithus kachchhensis. In M. cylindricus, a shell thickness matching the length of the spheroliths prevents the failure of eggshells, whereas in M. jabalpurensis and M. baghensis, which have thinner shells, the development of additional subspheroliths compensates for the relatively higher magnitude of tensile stresses. Extremely thin eggshell in S. kachchhensis shows a still higher magnitude of tensile stresses, thereby making it prone to cracking, but the propagation of cracks is apparently checked and stability reinforced by wider spacing of pore canals.
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 ) leads rapidly to infection of the brain and subsequent neuropsychological impairment, including subclinical impairment, minor cognitive-motor disorder, and HIV-1–associated dementia (HAD). This article reviews HAD and the factors involved in its pathogenesis; the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy; the prevalence of HIV-1 and subtypes; and the role of chemokines and cytokines as the capstones associated with neuropathology due to inflammation.
The Kepler Mission simultaneously measures the brightness of more than 150,000 stars every 29.4 minutes primarily for the purpose of transit photometry. Over the course of its 3.5-year primary mission Kepler has observed over 190,000 distinct stars, announcing 2,321 planet candidates, 2,165 eclipsing binaries, and 105 confirmed planets. As Kepler moves into its 4-year extended mission, the total number of transit-like features identified in the light curves has increased to as many as ~18,000. This number of signals has become intractable for human beings to inspect by eye in a thorough and timely fashion. To mitigate this problem we are developing machine learning approaches to perform the task of reviewing the diagnostics for each transit signal candidate to establish a preliminary list of planetary candidates ranked from most credible to least credible. Our preliminary results indicate that random forests can classify potential transiting planet signatures with an accuracy of more than 98.6% as measured by the area under a receiver-operating curve.
He desired – I am alone, let me have a second one.]
– Brhadāranyaka Upanishad, 4.3
Apāre kāvyasamāre kavirekah prajāpatih
Yathāsmai rochate viswam tathetadparivartate
[In the endless world of poetry the poet is the only Creator and he shapes this world, as he likes.]
– Anandvardhan (1975; Dhvanyaloka Commentary on 3.42)
It is often believed that creativity is demonstrated when we indulge in contributing something original or novel and useful to the domains of objects and ideas. Thus any creation, irrespective of its domain, is deemed “creative” to the extent that it is different from earlier creations and has functional value (Runco, 2004; Sternberg & Lubart, 1996). In this way, creativity challenges tradition, questions the status quo, and brings in change and innovation. At the same time, the flexibility introduced by creativity empowers people to act more effectively in relation to self as well as environment.
Since creativity involves originality and novelty, it is sometimes considered to be a gift of God, but discoveries and inventions clearly imply the role of human effort. In fact, creativity is paradoxical in many respects and defies any simple characterization. Creativity is often conceptualized as a general human ability, but its apparent recognition in different areas suggests the need to accommodate diverse creative talents. Similarly, while it is related to intelligence, highly intelligent people are not necessarily highly creative.
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