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A new tillodont, Anthraconyx hypsomylus, n. gen. n. sp., is described from the early Eocene Cambay Shale Formation at Vastan Lignite Mine, Gujarat, India. Anthraconyx hypsomylus is the smallest Eocene tillodont and is distinguished by having the most buccally hypsodont cheek teeth of any known esthonychine. The closest dental resemblances are to North American Esthonyx and Azygonyx and European Plesiesthonyx, providing further evidence of affinities between the Vastan local fauna and Euroamerican vertebrate faunas.
Finite element modeling (FEM) has been used to evaluate microstructure-controlled stability of selected eggshells of Indian dinosaurs. Our study suggests that under static load the eggshell microstructure of Megaloolithus cylindricus displays a low magnitude of tensile stress over most of the spherolith. The magnitude of this tensile stress is lower than that displayed in M. jabalpurensis, M. baghensis, and Subtiliolithus kachchhensis. In M. cylindricus, a shell thickness matching the length of the spheroliths prevents the failure of eggshells, whereas in M. jabalpurensis and M. baghensis, which have thinner shells, the development of additional subspheroliths compensates for the relatively higher magnitude of tensile stresses. Extremely thin eggshell in S. kachchhensis shows a still higher magnitude of tensile stresses, thereby making it prone to cracking, but the propagation of cracks is apparently checked and stability reinforced by wider spacing of pore canals.
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