In mammalian brains, d-serine has been shown to be required for the regulation of glutamate neurotransmission as an endogenous co-agonist for the N-methyl-d-aspartate type glutamate receptor that is essential for the expression of higher-order brain functions. The exact control mechanisms for the extracellular d-serine dynamics, however, await further elucidation. To obtain an insight into this issue, we have characterized the effects of agents acting at the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropioinic acid (AMPA) type glutamate receptor on the extracellular d-serine contents in the medial prefrontal cortex of freely moving rats by an in vivo microdialysis technique in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection. In vivo experiments are needed in terms of a crucial role of d-serine in the neuron-glia communications despite the previous in vitro studies on AMPA receptor-d-serine interactions using the separated preparations of neurons or glial cells. Here, we show that the intra-cortical infusion of (S)-AMPA, an active enantiomer at the AMPA receptor, causes a significant and concentration-dependent reduction in the prefrontal extracellular contents of d-serine, which is reversed by an AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist, 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide disodium salt, and a calcium permeable AMPA receptor antagonist, 1-naphthyl acetyl spermine. The d-serine reducing effects of (S)-AMPA are augmented by co-infusion of cyclothiazide that prevents AMPA receptor desensitization. Our data support the view that a calcium permeable AMPA receptor subtype may exert a phasic inhibitory control on the extracellular d-serine release in the mammalian prefrontal cortex in vivo.