Indonesia has had its share of natural and manmade disasters. From 1997 to 2002, Indonesia has experienced 90 incidents of terrorist bomb attacks. In 13 (14.4%) of the terrorist attacks, the bombs did not explode. A total of 224 persons have been killed, and 340 persons have been injured. Most of those killed or injured were the result of the bombings in Jakarta and Bali. Besides bombings, there have been riots, especially in Jakarta. The Indonesian Surgeons Association established the 1–1–8 Emergency Ambulance Service Foundation to develop the Prehospital Emergency Medical Services in Indonesia. Despite difficulties, this service has been implemented in 18 cities. The occurrence of disasters, riots, ethnic conflicts, terrorist attacks, and the introduction of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) course in 1995, have helped to convince the people and the government that it was important to develop this 1–1–8 Emergency Ambulance Services system, and agreed to accept a Safe Community Program. With the Safe Community Program, Jakarta with its Integrated 1–1–8 Emergency Ambulance Service managed to provide proper emergency medical care to the casualties caused by terrorist bombings, riots, and in the three weeks of floods during which 75% of Jakarta was submerged.