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To assess the relationship between programme attendance in a produce prescription (PRx) programme and changes in cardiovascular risk factors.
The Georgia Food for Health (GF4H) programme provided six monthly nutrition education sessions, six weekly cooking classes and weekly produce vouchers. Participants became programme graduates attending at least 4 of the 6 of both the weekly cooking classes and monthly education sessions. We used a longitudinal, single-arm approach to estimate the association between the number of monthly programme visits attended and changes in health indicators.
GF4H was implemented in partnership with a large safety-net health system in Atlanta, GA.
Three hundred thirty-one participants living with or at-risk of chronic disease and food insecurity were recruited from primary care clinics. Over three years, 282 participants graduated from the programme.
After adjusting for programme site, year, participant sex, age, race and ethnicity, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation and household size, we estimated that each additional programme visit attended beyond four visits was associated with a 0·06 kg/m2 reduction in BMI (95 % CI –0·12, –0·01; P = 0·02), a 0·37 inch reduction in waist circumference (95 % CI –0·48, –0·27; P < 0·001), a 1·01 mmHg reduction in systolic blood pressure (95 % CI –1·45, –0·57; P < 0·001) and a 0·43 mmHg reduction in diastolic blood pressure (95 % CI –0·69, –0·17; P = 0·001).
Each additional cooking and nutrition education visit attended beyond the graduation threshold was associated with modest but significant improvements in CVD risk factors, suggesting that increased engagement in educational components of a PRx programme improves health outcomes.
To determine the association between household food security and infant complementary feeding practices in rural Bangladesh.
Prospective, cohort study using structured home interviews during pregnancy and 3 and 9 months after delivery. We used two indicators of household food security at 3-months’ follow-up: maternal Food Composition Score (FCS), calculated via the World Food Programme method, and an HHFS index created from an eleven-item food security questionnaire. Infant feeding practices were characterized using WHO definitions.
Two rural sub-districts of Kishoreganj, Bangladesh.
Mother–child dyads (n 2073) who completed the 9-months’ follow-up.
Complementary feeding was initiated at age ≤4 months for 7 %, at 5–6 months for 49 % and at ≥7 months for 44 % of infants. Based on 24 h dietary recall, 98 % of infants were still breast-feeding at age 9 months, and 16 % received ≥4 food groups and ≥4 meals (minimally acceptable diet) in addition to breast milk. Mothers’ diet was more diverse than infants’. The odds of receiving a minimally acceptable diet for infants living in most food-secure households were three times those for infants living in least food-secure households (adjusted OR=3·0; 95 % CI 2·1, 4·3). Socio-economic status, maternal age, literacy, parity and infant sex were not associated with infant diet.
HHFS and maternal FCS were significant predictors of subsequent infant feeding practices. Nevertheless, even the more food-secure households had poor infant diet. Interventions aimed at improving infant nutritional status need to focus on both complementary food provision and education.
The contribution of subsidized food commodities to total food consumption is unknown. We estimated the proportion of individual energy intake from food commodities receiving the largest subsidies from 1995 to 2010 (corn, soyabeans, wheat, rice, sorghum, dairy and livestock).
Integrating information from three federal databases (MyPyramid Equivalents, Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities, and What We Eat in America) with data from the 2001–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, we computed a Subsidy Score representing the percentage of total energy intake from subsidized commodities. We examined the score’s distribution and the probability of having a ‘high’ (≥70th percentile) v. ‘low’ (≤30th percentile) score, across the population and subgroups, using multivariate logistic regression.
Community-dwelling adults in the USA.
Participants (n 11 811) aged 18–64 years.
Median Subsidy Score was 56·7 % (interquartile range 47·2–65·4 %). Younger, less educated, poorer, and Mexican Americans had higher scores. After controlling for covariates, age, education and income remained independently associated with the score: compared with individuals aged 55–64 years, individuals aged 18–24 years had a 50 % higher probability of having a high score (P<0·0001). Individuals reporting less than high-school education had 21 % higher probability of having a high score than individuals reporting college completion or higher (P=0·003); individuals in the lowest tertile of income had an 11 % higher probability of having a high score compared with individuals in the highest tertile (P=0·02).
Over 50 % of energy in US diets is derived from federally subsidized commodities.
To assess the relationships between maternal breast-feeding intention, attitudes, self-efficacy and knowledge at 7 months’ gestation with exclusive or full breast-feeding at 3months postpartum.
Prospective cohort study with structured home interviews during pregnancy and 3 months after delivery.
Two rural sub-districts of Kishoreganj district, Bangladesh.
Over 80 % of 2178 pregnant women intended to exclusively breast-feed (EBF). Maternal positive attitudes, self-efficacy and knowledge about breast-feeding were positively associated with EBF intention (all P<0·05). All mothers except one reported initiating breast-feeding and 99·6 % of children were still breast-fed at 3 months. According to 24 h dietary recalls, we categorized 985 (45·2 %) infants as EBF at 3 months (47·8 % among mothers with EBF intention; 31·7 % among mothers with no EBF intention; P<0·05) and 551 (25·3 %) infants as predominantly breast-fed at 3 months (24·2 % among mothers with EBF intention; 30·8 % among mothers with no EBF intention; P<0·05). Prenatal EBF intention was associated with EBF (OR=1·48, 95 % CI 1·14, 1·91) and with full breast-feeding (OR=1·34, 95 % CI 1·04, 1·72) at age 3 months. EBF at age 3months was not associated with maternal breast-feeding knowledge, attitudes or self-efficacy.
Despite widespread expressed maternal EBF intention and universal breast-feeding initiation, prevalence of both exclusive and full breast-feeding at 3months remains lower than WHO recommendations. EBF intention predicts breast-feeding behaviours, suggesting the importance of prenatal counselling to improve infant feeding behaviours.
We characterized post-infancy child growth patterns and determined the incidence of becoming stunted and of recovery from stunting.
Data came from Young Lives, a longitudinal study of childhood poverty in four low- and middle-income countries.
We analysed length/height measurements for children at ages 1, 5 and 8 years.
Children (n 7171) in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam.
Mean height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) at age 1 year ranged from −1·51 (Ethiopia) to −1·08 (Vietnam). From age 1 to 5 years, mean HAZ increased by 0·27 in Ethiopia (P < 0·001) and decreased among the other cohorts (range: −0·19 (Peru) to −0·32 (India); all P < 0·001). From 5 to 8 years, mean HAZ increased in all cohorts (range: 0·19 (India) to 0·38 (Peru); all P < 0·001). Prevalence of stunting (HAZ<−2·0) at 1 year ranged from 21 % (Vietnam) to 46 % (Ethiopia). From age 1 to 5 years, stunting prevalence decreased by 15·1 percentage points in Ethiopia (P < 0·001) and increased in the other cohorts (range: 3·0 percentage points (Vietnam) to 5·3 percentage points (India); all P ≤ 0·001). From 5 to 8 years, stunting prevalence decreased in all cohorts (range: 5·0 percentage points (Vietnam) to 12·7 percentage points (Peru); all P < 0·001). The incidence of becoming stunted between ages 1 to 5 years ranged from 11 % (Vietnam) to 22 % (India); between ages 5 to 8 years, it ranged from 3 % (Peru) to 6 % (India and Ethiopia). The incidence of recovery from stunting between ages 1 and 5 years ranged from 27 % (Vietnam) to 53 % (Ethiopia); between ages 5 and 8 years, it ranged from 30 % (India) to 47 % (Ethiopia).
We found substantial recovery from early stunting among children in four low- and middle-income countries.
Rapidly transitioning societies are experiencing dramatic increases in obesity and cardio-metabolic risk; however, few prospective studies from developing countries have quantified these increases or described their joint relationships.
We collected dietary, physical activity, demographic, anthropometric and cardio-metabolic risk factor data from 376 Guatemalan young adults in 1997–98 (aged 20–29 years) and in 2002–04 (aged 25–34 years).
In total, 42 % of men and 56 % of women experienced weight gain >5 kg in 5 years. Percent body fat (%BF) and waist circumference (WC) increased by 4·2 % points and 5·5 cm among men, and 3·2 % points and 3·4 cm among women, respectively. Five-year increases in both %BF and WC were associated with lower physical activity, urban residence and shorter height among men but not among women (test for heterogeneity P < 0·05 for residence and physical activity). Changes in %BF and WC and concomitant changes in cardio-metabolic risk factors were similar for men and women. In standardised regression, change in %BF was associated with changes in TAG (β=0·19; 95 % CI 0·08, 0·30), total:HDL cholesterol (β=0·22; 95 % CI 0·12, 0·33) and systolic (β=0·22; 95 % CI 0·12, 0·33) and diastolic (β=0·18; 95 % CI 0·08, 0·28) blood pressure, but not with glucose; associations were similar for WC.
Over 5 years this relatively young population of Guatemalan adults experienced rapid increases in multiple measures of adiposity, which were associated with adverse changes in lipid and blood pressure levels.
We assessed the association of four diet quality scores with multiple cardio-metabolic outcomes among Guatemalan young adults experiencing the nutrition transition. We obtained cross-sectional dietary, demographic, anthropometric and cardio-metabolic risk factor data from 1220 Guatemalan adults (mean age 32·7 (sd 5·8) years) in 2002–4, and computed a Recommended Food Score (RFS), Not Recommended Food Score (NRFS), Food Variety Score (FVS) and the Dietary Quality Index-International (DQI-I). All four scores were correlated with energy intake (r 0·23–0·49; all P < 0·01), but had varying associations with socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors and nutrient intakes. None of the scores was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome or its components; rather some were positively associated with risk factors. Among both men and women the DQI-I was positively associated with BMI (kg/m2; β = 0·10, 95 % CI 0·003, 0·21 (men); β = 0·07, 95 % CI 0·01, 0·14 (women)) and waist circumference (cm; β = 0·02, 95 % CI 0·01, 0·03 (men); β = 0·02, 95 % CI = 0·01, 0·02 (women)). Among men, the RFS was positively associated with TAG (mg/l; β = 0·11, 95 % CI 0·02, 0·21) and glucose (mg/l; β = 0·13: 95 % CI 0·03, 0·22). We conclude that indices of diet quality are not consistently associated with chronic disease risk factor prevalence in this population of Guatemalan young adults.
BMI and waist circumference (WC) are used to screen for cardio-metabolic risk; however it is unclear how well these indices perform in populations subject to childhood stunting.
To evaluate BMI and WC as indicators of cardio-metabolic risk and to determine optimal cut-off points among 1325 Guatemalan adults (44 % stunted: ≤150 cm women; ≤162 cm men).
Cardio-metabolic risk factors were systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥130/≥85 mmHg, glucose ≥5·5 mmol/l, TAG ≥1·7 mmol/l, ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ≥5·0, and the presence of two or more and three or more of the preceding risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used.
Areas under the ROC curve were in the range of 0·59–0·77 for BMI and 0·59–0·78 for WC among men and 0·66–0·72 and 0·64–0·72 among women, respectively. Optimal cut-off points for BMI were 24·7–26·1 kg/m2 among men (24·5–26·1 kg/m2 stunted; 24·8–26·3 kg/m2 non-stunted) and 26·5–27·6 kg/m2 among women (26·3–27·8 kg/m2 stunted; 26·6–27·9 kg/m2 non-stunted). Optimal cut-off points for WC were 87·3–91·1 cm among men (85·3–89·4 cm stunted; 88·5–93·3 cm non-stunted) and 91·3–95·3 cm among women (90·9–94·4 cm stunted; 91·8–95·6 cm non-stunted).
Optimal cut-off points for BMI were slightly higher among women than men with no meaningful differences by stature. Optimal cut-off points for WC were several centimetres lower for stunted compared with non-stunted men, and both were substantially lower than the current recommendations among Western populations. Cut-off points derived from Western populations may not be appropriate for developing countries with a high prevalence of stunting.
The purpose of the study was to assess the validity of a 52-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by comparing it with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls.
Three non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls and one FFQ were administered over a one-month period.
Four communities of El Progreso, Guatemala.
Seventy-three individuals aged 22–55 years.
Intakes of energy and other nutrients as measured by the FFQ were higher than intakes measured by 24-hour recalls. Energy was overestimated by 361 kcal, and nutrient overestimates were particularly great for vitamin C and iron. Pearson correlation coefficients for crude energy and nutrients intakes ranged from 0.64 for energy to 0.12 for vitamin C. Exact agreement for both methods (measured by the concordance correlation coefficient) ranged from 0.59 (fat) to 0.06 (vitamin C). Pearson correlation coefficients for energy-adjusted nutrients ranged from 0.59 (carbohydrates) to 0.11 (thiamin). Pearson correlation coefficients for the proportion of total energy derived from specific foods ranged from 0.59 (tortillas) to 0.01 (sugared beverages). Cross-classification of quartiles of crude nutrient intakes for both methods indicated that <11% were grossly misclassified; after adjusting for energy intake, <13% were grossly misclassified.
This FFQ provides good measures of energy and macronutrient intakes and a reasonably reliable measure of micronutrient intake, indicating its suitability for comparing exposures within a study population in reference to heath-related endpoints. Our results highlight the need to adapt any FFQ to specific cultural needs – in this case, the Guatemalan ‘core foods’ (tortilla, bread and beans), for which inter-individual variability in intake is high.
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