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The study of polymorphism of glutenin makes it possible to identify and isolate desirable genotypes with higher grain quality. In the last few years, only a part of the genetic diversity among the modern and popular wheat germplasm and varieties based on the polymorphism of glutenin subunits are captured. To address this 107 wheat varieties released across different agricultural zones in India, were used to investigate HMW-GS and LMW-GS allele polymorphism, gene diversity and genetic variation in the Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci. Among the different HMW-GS, the highest genetic variation was observed at the Glu-D1 locus with both Glu-D1a and Glu-D1d possessing genetic variation of 0.490, 0.484 respectively. The highest genetic variation at the Glu-A3 locus was observed at the Glu-A3c and GluA3b possessing a genetic variation of 0.463, 0.411 respectively. This was followed by the Glu-B3j having a genetic variation of 0.386 at the Glu-B3 locus. Over 20 years a remarkable increase in the Glu-D1d allele is observed in the newly released varieties in India. Among all the zones, Glu-A1-null is the least frequent allele at the Glu-1 locus, however, it is present as the predominant allele in the NHZ of India. This study elucidates the relationships of these HMW and LMW allelic frequencies and genetic variation with their geographical distribution over the two different periods. This study provides reference data that can be used to assist the breeding, quality evaluation and development of good-quality wheat varieties.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to significant strain on front-line healthcare workers.
In this multicentre study, we compared the psychological outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic in various countries in the Asia-Pacific region and identified factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes.
From 29 April to 4 June 2020, the study recruited healthcare workers from major healthcare institutions in five countries in the Asia-Pacific region. A self-administrated survey that collected information on prior medical conditions, presence of symptoms, and scores on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised were used. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) relating to COVID-19 was compared, and multivariable logistic regression identified independent factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes within each country.
A total of 1146 participants from India, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia and Vietnam were studied. Despite having the lowest volume of cases, Vietnam displayed the highest prevalence of PTSD. In contrast, Singapore reported the highest case volume, but had a lower prevalence of depression and anxiety. In the multivariable analysis, we found that non-medically trained personnel, the presence of physical symptoms and presence of prior medical conditions were independent predictors across the participating countries.
This study highlights that the varied prevalence of psychological adversity among healthcare workers is independent of the burden of COVID-19 cases within each country. Early psychological interventions may be beneficial for the vulnerable groups of healthcare workers with presence of physical symptoms, prior medical conditions and those who are not medically trained.
Multiple regression analysis of data from field experiments conducted in Alberta at two locations between 1972 and 1983 indicated that there was a significant relationship between yield loss of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and relative time of emergence of wild oat (Avena fatua L. ♯ AVEFA). At a given wild oat density, percent yield loss increased the earlier wild oat emerged relative to the crops and gradually diminished the later it emerged. However, the magnitude of the yield loss for both species varied with the year. Regression equations based on data pooled over years and locations were developed to provide an estimate of yield loss of barley and wheat due to relative time of wild oat emergence and wild oat density. The information should be considered when barley and wheat losses due to wild oat are being assessed.
The yield potential and the effect on yield loss of canola of different densities of volunteer barley were investigated at three locations in western Canada. Field studies were conducted from 1982 to 1986. Rectangular hyperbolic models based on data pooled over years, locations, and canola cultivars, and incorporating different densities of volunteer barley and canola accurately portrayed field responses in most instances. Results indicated that volunteer barley severely reduced canola yield. However, financial losses due to reduced canola yield were partly offset by the volunteer barley crop.