To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This chapter presents a commentary on the lung-specific complications following transplantation and this should be used to drive the investigation plan and management. Shared care protocols with effective communication should be organized in patients who live at a distance from the transplant center to ensure that local follow-up includes monitoring of the lung function and imaging. Acute rejection can be identified on lung biopsies obtained via transbronchial biopsy (TBBx) at fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Many transplant centers perform regular bronchoscopy and TBBx in addition to spirometry in the first year to enable early diagnosis and treatment of asymptomatic rejection, with the aim of preserving graft function and protecting against bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Recently the importance of detecting early, subclinical BOS before irreversible fibroproliferative disease has become established has been recognized, and a new stage of BOS 0-p has been added.