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This volume appears twenty years after 9/11, a good time to assess what pundits predicted at the time of the attacks, which was that “everything had changed.”1 With the benefit of hindsight, can we now say that was an overstatement? What changed – and how?
In exceptional circumstances, defined as “emergencies”, states can limit human rights and personal freedoms, as long as restrictions are proportionate and necessary. From a comparative constitutional law perspective, several “emergency models” can be envisaged. At the same time, several international law tools provide for the possibility to derogate guarantees embodied therein in order to tackle exceptional circumstances. Since September 11, 2001, international terrorism has represented one of the biggest challenges for democratic countries and such a “global” threat still afflicts our democracies. Nevertheless, few countries have triggered their emergency provisions, as contained either in national constitution or legislation. Rather, limitations of human rights are often embodied in “ordinary” measures, so posing a high risk of “normalizing” restrictions of rights outside of a legally regulated and temporary state of emergency. How far has the “normalization” of exceptional circumstances come in times of international terrorism in democratic systems? Which is the relationship between international law provisions allowing derogation from human rights embodied in treaties and national emergency provisions? How can the international level impact on the other levels in determining exceptional measures? Are several de facto emergency provisions challenging the above-described models, which classify emergency regimes from a constitutional law perspective?
Twenty years after the outbreak of the threat posed by international jihadist terrorism, which triggered the need for democracies to balance fundamental rights and security needs, 9/11 and the Rise of Global Anti-Terrorism Law offers an overview of counter-terrorism and of the interplay among the main actors involved in the field since 2001. This book aims to give a picture of the complex and evolving interaction between the international, regional and domestic levels in framing counter-terrorism law and policies. Targeting scholars, researchers and students of international, comparative and constitutional law, it is a valuable resource to understand the theoretical and practical issues arising from the interaction of several levels in counter-terrorism measures. It also provides an in-depth analysis of the role of the United Nations Security Council.