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Endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) significantly improves outcomes for acute ischemic stroke patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) who present in a time sensitive manner. Prolonged EVT access times may reduce benefits for eligible patients. We evaluated the efficiency of EVT services including EVT rates, onset-to-CTA time and onset-to-groin puncture time in our province.
Materials and methods:
Three areas were defined: zone I- urban region, zone II-areas within 1 h drive distance from the Comprehensive Stroke Center (CSC); and zone III-areas more than 1hr drive distance from the CSC. In this retrospective cohort study, EVT rate, onset-to-groin puncture time and onset-to-CTA time were compared among the three groups using Krustal–Wallis and Wilcoxon tests.
The EVT rate per 100,000 inhabitants for urban zone I was 8.6 as compared to 5.1 in zone II, and 7.5 in zone III. Compared to zone I (114 min; 95% CI (96, 132); n = 128), mean onset-to-CTA time was 19 min longer in zone II (133 min; 95% CI (77, 189); n = 23; p = 0.0459) and 103 min longer in zone III (217 min, 95% CI (162, 272); n = 44; p < 0.0001). Compared to zone I (209 min, 95% CI (181, 238)), mean onset-to-groin puncture time was 22 min longer in zone II (231 min, 95% CI (174, 288); p = 0.046) but 163 min longer in zone III (372 min, 95% CI (312, 432); p < 0.0001).
EVT access in rural areas is considerably reduced with significantly longer onset-to-groin puncture times and onset-to-CTA times when compared to our urban area. This may help in modifying the patient transfer policy for EVT referral.
Endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) has revolutionized the care of patients with acute ischemic stroke. The efficacy of EVT is dependent on the optimal setup of a stroke system. Extrapolating the results of clinical trials to any individual stroke center should be done with caution. This is more important for centers with suboptimal stroke systems of care. The Canadian registry has helped highlight the suboptimal outcome post EVT in Manitoba. This could potentially be optimized with the addition of an acute stroke unit in the near future. Our study will serve as a baseline for future improvement in acute stroke care.
Purpose: We measured anterior cerebral artery (ACA)-middle cerebral artery (MCA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA)-MCA pial filling on single-phase computed tomography angiograms (sCTAs) in acute ischemic stroke and correlate with the CTA-based Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-based American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology (ASITN) score. Methods: Patients with acute stroke and M1 MCA±intracranial internal carotid artery occlusion on baseline CTA were included. Baseline sCTA was assessed for phase of image acquisition. An evaluator assessed collaterals using the Calgary Collateral (CC) Score (measures pial arterial filling in ACA-MCA and PCA-MCA regions separately), the CTA-based MGH score, and on DSA using the ASITN score. Infarct volumes were measured on 24- to 48-hour magnetic resonance imaging/ computed tomography. Results: Of 106 patients, baseline sCTA was acquired in early arterial phase in 9.9%, peak arterial in 50.7%, equilibrium in 32.4%, early venous in 5.6%, and late venous in 1.4%. Variance in ACA-MCA collaterals explained only 32% of variance in PCA-MCA collaterals on the CC score (Spearman’s correlation coefficient rho [rho]=0.56). Correlation between ACA-MCA collaterals and the MGH score was strong (rho=0.8); correlation between PCA-MCA collaterals and this score was modest (rho=0.54). Correlation between ACA-MCA collaterals and the ASITN score was modest (n=53, rho=0.43); and correlation between PCA-MCA collaterals and ASITN score was poor (rho=0.33). Of the CTA-based scores, the CC Score (Akaike [AIC] 1022) was better at predicting follow-up infarct volumes than was the MGH score (AIC 1029). Conclusion: Collateral assessments in acute ischemic stroke are best done using CTA with temporal resolution and by assessing regional variability. ACA-MCA and MCA-PCA collaterals should be evaluated separately.
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