In spite of the limitations of the data, the estimation of a Cuban price index for 1872–1897 offers an acceptable result, is an important contribution to its economic history and offers some replies for the controversial issue of its independence. These prices suffered a deflation process similar to the other countries and which took place much at the same time as in the US (economy to which the island was already very linked to). However, after the 1883 crisis, prices started to decrease at a much lower rate than those of sugar, causing economic losses that, given the importante of this product, can be a good approach to what indicators such as the income rate —there are not income estimations— could show. Opposite to other studies, our research has got a complementary character. It points out die necessity of enlarging the spectre of analysis of issues such as the tariff policy or the protection of Cuban market for Spanish goods, since evidence proves that the international economic system development in the 1880's and 1890's was the main economic reason for die Island's independence.