5-HT1A receptors are key components of the serotonin system, acting both pre- and post- synaptically in different brain areas. There is a growing amount of evidence showing the importance of 5-HT1A in different psychiatric disorders, from mood to anxiety disorders, moving through suicidal behaviour and psychotic disorders. Findings in the literature are not consistent with any definite 5-HT1A influence in psychiatric disorders. 5-HT1A gene variants have been reported to play some role in mood disorders, anxiety disorders and psychotic disorders. Again, the literature findings are not unequivocal. Concerning response to treatment, the C(-1019)G variant seems to be of primary interest in antidepressant response: C allele carriers generally show a better response to treatment, especially in Caucasian samples. Together with the C(-1019)G (rs6295) variant, the Ile28Val (rs1799921), Arg219Leu (rs1800044) and Gly22Ser (rs1799920) variants have been investigated in possible associations with psychiatric disorders, also with no definitive results. This lack of consistency can be also due to an incomplete gene investigation. To make progress on this point, a list of validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the whole gene is proposed for further investigations.