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Intake of nutrients may influence the risk of endometrial cancer (EC). We aimed to estimate the association of intake of individual nutrients from food and from food plus supplements with EC occurrence.
A population-based case–control study conducted in Canada (2002–2006).
Nutrient intakes from food and supplements were assessed using an FFQ. Logistic regression was used to estimate EC risk within quartile levels of nutrient intakes.
Incident EC cases (n 506) were identified from the Alberta Cancer Registry, and population controls were frequency- and age-matched to cases (n 981).
There existed little evidence of an association with EC for the majority of macronutrients and micronutrients examined. We observed a statistically significant increased risk associated with the highest, compared with the lowest, quartile of intake of dietary cholesterol (multivariable-adjusted OR = 1·51, 95 % CI 1·08, 2·11; P for trend = 0·02). Age-adjusted risk at the highest level of intake was significantly reduced for Ca from food sources (OR = 0·73, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·99) but was attenuated in the multivariable model (OR = 0·82, 95 % CI 0·59, 1·13). When intake from supplements was included in Ca intake, risk was significantly reduced by 28 % with higher Ca (multivariable-adjusted OR = 0·72, 95 % CI 0·51, 0·99, P for trend = 0·04). We also observed unexpected increased risks at limited levels of intakes of dietary soluble fibre, vitamin C, thiamin, vitamin B6 and lutein/zeaxanthin, with no evidence for linear trend.
The results of our study suggest a positive association between dietary cholesterol and EC risk and an inverse association with Ca intake from food sources and from food plus supplements.
Chemoradiotherapy followed by monthly temozolomide (TMZ) is the standard of care for patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Case reports have identified GBM patients who experienced transient radiological deterioration after concurrent chemoradiotherapy which stabilized or resolved after additional cycles of adjuvant TMZ, a phenomenon known as radiographic pseudoprogression. Little is known about the natural history of radiographic pseudoprogression.
We retrospectively evaluated the incidence of radiographic pseudoprogression in a population-based cohort of GBM patients and determined its relationship with outcome and MGMT promoter methylation status.
Out of 43 evaluable patients, 25 (58%) exhibited radiographic progression on the first MRI after concurrent treatment. Twenty of these went on to receive adjuvant TMZ, and subsequent investigation demonstrated radiographic pseudoprogression in 10 cases (50%). Median survival (MS) was better in patients with pseudoprogression (MS 14.5 months) compared to those with true radiologic progression (MS 9.1 months, p=0.025). The MS of patients with pseudoprogression was similar to those who stabilized/responded during concurrent treatment (p=0.31). Neither the extent of the initial resection nor dexamethasone dosing was associated with pseudoprogression.
These data suggest that physicians should continue adjuvant TMZ in GBM patients when early MRI scans show evidence of progression following concurrent chemoradiotherapy, as up to 50% of these patients will experience radiologic stability or improvement in subsequent treatment cycles.
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