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More than 100,000 people from the city of Tianjin were evacuated to the countryside in a civil defense program during the 1970s. Many evacuees refused to submit to state migration mandates, instead sneaking back to the city illegally or petitioning to regain urban residency. City officials responded flexibly to the evacuees’ pleas, sympathizing with family reunification and treating suburban districts (jiaoqu) on the outskirts of Tianjin as a buffer zone between city and countryside. Dominated by agriculture but home to a growing number of factories, workshops, and offices during the 1970s, jiaoqu became a solution to evacuation headaches. When compared with the recent coerced movement of hundreds of thousands of Chinese citizens on national security grounds, the civil defense evacuations of the 1970s suggest that it may be misguided to think of the Mao Zedong years as a faraway time that was more radical or repressive than China today.
Civil emergencies occurring with little warning can quickly produce mass casualties. To develop an Emergency Department’s surge capacity, medical student involvement in the disaster response has been advocated. Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore is located in proximity to Singapore General Hospital (SGH) and represents an untapped manpower resource. With appropriate training, medical students can be leveraged upon as ready and reasonably qualified manpower.
This review provides a snapshot of the conceptualization and setting up of the Disaster Volunteer Corps (DVC) program. We discuss the overall strategy and benefits to stakeholders, emphasizing the close symbiotic relationship between academia and healthcare services.
Duke-NUS medical students will be recruited to receive training from SGH emergency physicians. The frequency of training will be four times yearly, with ad hoc participation in disaster simulation exercises. A call-tree will be employed for DVC activation. The DVC curriculum includes disaster response principles, HAZMAT, crowd control, marshaling, logistics, psychological support, and basic first aid. Teaching methods include didactic lectures, case discussions, involvement in event medical cover, and participation in disaster simulation exercises and response planning.
To date, there are 10 medical students and four emergency physician faculty volunteers involved in the program. Support is provided by adjunct instructors from nursing, nuclear medicine, social work, and security, for training in decontamination, radiological disasters, psychological first aid, and crowd control measures respectively. Assessment by faculty will be conducted to ensure the quality of training and competency of skills.
The DVC provides a unique way of teaching medical students disaster medicine principles in a hands-on experiential format, while simultaneously enhancing the operational readiness of the hospital in times of disaster. This model of close collaboration between university educational and healthcare services provides a feasible model of structured volunteerism that could be replicated in other similar settings.
Geophysical survey and excavations from 2010–2016 at Lawrenz Gun Club (11CS4), a late pre-Columbian village located in the central Illinois River valley in Illinois, identified 10 mounds, a central plaza, and dozens of structures enclosed within a stout 10 hectare bastioned palisade. Nineteen radiocarbon (14C) measurements were taken from single entities of wood charcoal, short-lived plants, and animal bones. A site chronology has been constructed using a Bayesian approach that considers the stratigraphic contexts and feature formation processes. The village was host to hundreds of years of continuous human activity during the Mississippi Period. Mississippian activity at the site is estimated to have begun in cal AD 990–1165 (95% probability), ended in cal AD 1295–1450 (95% probability), and lasted 150–420 yr (95% probability) in the primary Bayesian model with similar results obtained in two alternative models. The palisade is estimated to have been constructed in cal AD 1150–1230 (95% probability) and was continuously repaired and rebuilt for 15–125 yr (95% probability), probably for 40–85 yr (68% probability). Comparison to other studies demonstrates that the bastioned palisade at Lawrenz was one of the earliest constructed in the midcontinental United States.
Depression and cognitive impairment are highly prevalent in type 2 diabetes (T2D), yet little is known about how their relationship varies by sex. We examined this question in a large T2D sample (N = 897) of non-demented elderly (≥ 65) participating in the Israel Diabetes and Cognitive Decline (IDCD) Study. Cognition was evaluated by a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and depressive symptoms were assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The results showed that in all but the executive function domain, the association of depressive symptoms with poorer cognitive function was stronger in women than men, with a significant interaction for language/semantic categorization and missed significance for episodic memory. When defining clinical depression as GDS of ≥6, women with depression had significantly poorer language/semantic categorization, episodic memory, and overall cognitive function. Inclusion of antidepressants in the model did not alter substantively the associations. Our results suggest that depressed T2D women may have poorer cognitive performance, highlighting the significance of sex-specific personalized management of depression in elderly diabetics.
To examine the associations between adolescents’ diet quality and their perceived relatives’ and peers’ diet engagement and encouragement.
Cross-sectional study performed in European countries. Diet quality was scored using the Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A) based on four components: quality, diversity, balance and meal frequency. Perceived diet quality engagement and perceived encouragement of the relatives/peers were assessed using the questions ‘How healthy is each of the following persons’ diet?’ and ‘How often does each of the following persons encourage you to eat a healthy diet?’
Vienna, Ghent, Lille, Athens, Heraklion, Pecs, Rome, Dortmund, Zaragoza and Stockholm.
Healthy adolescents (n 2943).
The perceived engagement level of the mother, father and sister was each positively associated with the DQI-A (P<0·05). A positive association was found for the perceived engagement level of siblings, father and mother with all specific components (P<0·05). DQI-A was negatively associated with the perceived encouragement level from a best friend and positively associated with the encouragement level of the mother and father (P<0·05). Diversity, balance and quality components were positively associated with the perceived encouragement level from the mother and father (P<0·05), whereas the best friend’s perceived encouragement was negatively associated with the meal frequency component (P<0·01).
These findings highlight the role of social engagement and encouragement of relatives and peers in adolescents’ diet quality. Intervention or promotion programmes aimed at enhancing diet quality in adolescents should target both family and peers.
The New South African Review revives the tradition of critical, analytical scholarship developed by the South African Review in the 1970s and 1980s. Accessible to a wide readership and drawing upon authors from well beyond academia, its objective is to be informative, discursive and, at times, downright provocative. It seeks to provide contemporary comment and engage with current controversies. The first volume in the series, 2010: Development or Decline? ranges widely across the implications of the international crisis for the economy, the threats to our fragile ecology of present economic strategies, through to the state of the ANC and the public service, issues around service delivery, migration, HIV-Aids, land reform, crime, the sexual behaviour of our youth, and much more. Posing the provocative question of whether South Africa is embarking upon a long-term decline, the volume simultaneously argues the potential for a society premised upon social equality, social coherence and sustainability. This collection will appeal to both national and international audiences interested in engaging with the multiple dilemmas and challenges facing contemporary South Africa