To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The intake of a high-fat/high-fructose (HF/HFr) diet is described to be deleterious to cognitive performances, possibly via the induction of inflammatory factors. An excess of glucocorticoids is also known to exert negative effects on cerebral plasticity. In the present study, we assessed the effects of an unbalanced diet on circulating and central markers of inflammation and glucocorticoid activity, as well as their reversal by dietary cinnamon (CN) supplementation. A group of male Wistar rats were subjected to an immune challenge with acute lipopolysaccharide under a HF/HFr or a standard diet. Another group of Wistar rats were fed either a HF/HFr or a control diet for 12 weeks, with or without CN supplementation, and with or without restraint stress (Str) application before being killed. We evaluated the effects of such regimens on inflammation parameters in the periphery and brain and on the expression of actors of brain plasticity. To assess hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis activity, we measured the plasma concentrations of corticosterone and the expression of central corticotrophin-releasing hormone, mineralocorticoid receptor, glucocorticoid receptor and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. We found that the HF/HFr diet induced the expression of cytokines in the brain, but only after an immune challenge. Furthermore, we observed the negative effects of Str on the plasma concentrations of corticosterone and neuroplasticity markers in rats fed the control diet but not in those fed the HF/HFr diet. Additionally, we found that CN supplementation exerted beneficial effects under the control diet, but that its effects were blunted or even reversed under the HF/HFr diet. CN supplementation could be beneficial under a standard diet, but deleterious under the unbalanced diet encountered in Western societies.
Trivalent chromium (Cr3+) is an essential trace element involved in insulin function. Cr deficiencies result in decreased insulin sensitivity, glucose intolerance and an increased risk of diabetes. Cr status decreases with age suggesting that the elderly may be at high risk of Cr deficiency. This study aimed to provide information about the Cr content of foods in France and the Cr intake in French free-living elderly. We measured the food Cr content and daily Cr intake of freely chosen diets for 3 d in twelve French free-living elderly people and their Cr excretion and plasma hormonal related variables, leptin, insulin and cortisol. Considering the relationship between insulin resistance and oxidative stress, we also determined plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, thiol groups and total and reduced glutathione. Although these subjects had well-balanced diets, their daily Cr intakes did not reach the French recommendations. The low Cr intakes were due to the low Cr density of the foods. We found a negative correlation between Cr intakes and insulin, BMI and leptin.
Given the key role of Zn in many physiological functions, optimal Zn status could be a predictive parameter of successful ageing. However, the benefit of Zn supplementation is still a matter of debate since Zn supplementation has been reported to be associated with the alteration of Cu status and lipid metabolism. As part of the Zenith Project, the present study aimed to investigate, in free-living healthy European middle-aged and older subjects, the effect of Zn supplementation on the biochemical status of Zn, Fe and Cu and on lipid profile. Volunteers aged 55–70 (n 188) and 70–85 (n 199) years old participated in a double-blinded, randomised study and received a daily placebo, or Zn as 15 or 30 mg for 6 months. Zn supplementation did not significantly modify erythrocyte Zn levels or erythrocyte Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase activity. But Zn supplementation at 15 or 30 mg/d for 6 months increased significantly serum Zn levels and Zn urinary excretion with no major adverse effects on Fe and Cu status or on lipid metabolism. However, Zn supplementation at 30 mg/d showed some age- and sex-dependent alterations in Fe status or lipid profile. Therefore, with respect to the key role of an optimal Zn status in successful ageing, Zn supplementation at 15 mg/d, when necessary, could be safely proposed regarding lipids and the risk of interaction with Fe and Cu.
Ageing (and related diseases) may be described as a process which results from impaired immunological, genetic, neurological or endocrinological functions. Oxidative mechanisms may play an important role in the ageing process. It is important, therefore, to emphasize the relationship between health and nutrition in the elderly, particularly with regard to antioxidant micronutrient requirements. Indeed, accelerated ageing may be related to a deficit in the intakes of antioxidant vitamins (tocopherols, carotenoids and vitamin C) and trace elements (Zn and Se), as well as to an impaired adaptative mechanism against oxidative stress. Physiological modifications occurring during the lifetime and environmental influences are significant factors contributing to the impairment of micronutrient status, and these factors have to be considered when defining the specific requirements of the elderly. For Fe there is no evidence of benefit of supplementation in healthy subjects, but in the present state of knowledge combined supplementation, including Zn, Se, vitamins C and E and carotenoids, could be the best way to prevent accelerated ageing and reduce the risk of several common age-related diseases. Résumé De nombreuses théories (immunologique, génétique et neuroendocrinologique) ont été proposées pour expliquer les processus de vieillissement et les pathologies qui s’y rapportent. Les mécanismes oxydatifs pourraient contribuer à ces processus et plus particulièrement à leur accélération. La théorie radicalaire repose sur une modification avec l’âge du rapport prooxydants ou antioxydants dû à une majoration des processus oxydatifs accompagnés d’une diminution des systèmes de défense subséquentes à une carence en un ou plusieurs micronutriments antioxydants. Les modifications physiologiques qui accompagnent le vieillisement et une alimentation sélective contribuent aux modifications d’apport et d’absorption des micronutriments. Ces altérations sont accentuées lors de pathologies chroniques. Il n’existe pas de réel consensus sur les recommandations d’apports en oligoéléments adaptés au sujet âgé. Néanmoins les études récentes montrent qu’une association zinc, sélénium, vitamines antioxydantes (vitamines A et E et caroténodes) pourrait être le moyen le plus efficace de lutte contre les pathologies du grand âge et également de prévention du vieillissement accéléré.
Zn has been shown to possess antioxidant properties in vitro and in vitro. As inadequate dietary Zn intake has been reported in these populations, Zn supplementation may protect against oxidative stress and thereby limit the progression of degenerative diseases in such populations. We conducted the present study to evaluate the long-term supplementation effects of two moderate doses of Zn on in vitro Cu-induced LDL oxidation in French men and women.Three groups of sixteen healthy subjects aged 55–70 years from each sex participated in this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Each group received for six months either 0, 15 or 30mg supplemental Zn per d. At the beginning and at the end of the supplementation periods, dietary intakes of Zn, Cu, Fe and vitamin E were estimated using 4d food-intake records (including the weekend) and the GENI program. Zn, Cu, Fe and vitamin E statuswere also determined. In vitro LDL oxidizability (basal conjugated diene level, maximal conjugated diene formation and lag time) and lipid parameters were also determined. Dietary intakes of Zn, Cu, Fe and vitamin E were adequate in this population. Zn supplementation significantly increased serum Zn levels but did not significantly modify Cu, Fe or vitamin E status. However, Zn supplementation had no effect on in vitro LDL oxidation parameters, nor were there any sex-related differences in in vitro LDL oxidizability. The present study showed that long-term Zn supplementation of healthy subjects aged 55–70 years had no effect on in vitro Cu-induced LDL oxidation under the study conditions.
We conducted a cross-sectional study in 118 well-trained athletes to investigate 'high exposure' to sub-deficient antioxidant status, and consequently to oxidative damage, in relation to estimated daily energy expenditure (EE) and dietary antioxidant intake. Subjects completed 7 d food and activity records. Blood samples were obtained on day 8. Of the athletes 81, 60 and 43 % had intakes of vitamins E, C and β-carotene below two-thirds of the French RDA respectively, which is adjusted for EE (FRDAa). The deficit in vitamin E intake was positively correlated with EE (r 0·51, P>0·0001). All the athletes had normal plasma vitamins E and C and 14 % had marginal plasma β-carotene. Plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) did not increase with increased EE. As evidenced by ANOVA, EE-induced vitamin C intakes increased and consequently led to increased plasma ascorbic acid concentrations. In male athletes, plasma total carotenoids were negatively correlated with plasma TBARS concentrations (r –0·31, P>0·006). The relationship between vitamin C intakes and plasma concentrations was logarithmic (r 0·59, P> 0·0001). To summarize, it is not clear whether vitamin E requirements are overestimated with reference to EE in the FRDAa. Daily requirements for vitamin C do not exceed 200 mg. Our present results could be interpreted as meaning that carotenoids play a protective role as exogenous antioxidants. Carotenoid intakes in athletes must be considered carefully.
Within Europe there are differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk between countries and this might be related to dietary habits. Oxidative modification of LDL is suggested to increase the risk of CVD and both the fatty acid and antioxidant content of LDL can affect its oxidation. In the present study, concentration of LDL fatty acid and antioxidant micronutrients (tocopherols and carotenoids) and ex vivo oxidative resistance of LDL (lag phase) was compared in volunteers from five countries with different fruit and vegetable intakes and reported rates of CVD. Eighty volunteers (forty males, forty females per centre), age range 25–45 years, were recruited from France, Northern Ireland, UK, Republic of Ireland, The Netherlands, and Spain, and their LDL composition and lag phase were measured. There were some differences in LDL carotenoid and α-tocopherol concentrations between countries. α-Tocopherol was low and β- + γ-tocopherol were high (P<0·001) in the Dutch subjects. β-Carotene concentrations were significantly different between the French and Spanish volunteers, with French showing the highest and Spanish the lowest concentration. LDL lycopene was not different between centres in contrast to lutein, which was highest in French (twofold that in the Dutch and Spanish and threefold that in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, P<0·001). However absolute LDL saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and total unsaturated fatty acid concentrations were different between countries (P<0·001, total unsaturated highest in Northern Ireland) there was little difference in unsaturated:saturated fatty acid concentration ratios and no difference in polyunsaturated:saturated fatty acid concentration ratios. LDL from the Republic of Ireland (a region with a high rate of CVD) had greater resistance to Cu-stimulated oxidation than samples obtained from volunteers in other countries. In conclusion, LDL composition did not predict resistance to Cu-stimulated oxidation, nor is there evidence that LDL from volunteers in countries with lower rates of CVD have greater resistance to oxidation.
High intakes of fruits and vegetables, or high circulating levels of their biomarkers (carotenoids, vitamins C and E), have been associated with a relatively low incidence of cardiovascular disease, cataract and cancer. Exposure to a high fruit and vegetable diet increases antioxidant concentrations in blood and body tissues, and potentially protects against oxidative damage to cells and tissues. This paper describes blood concentrations of carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid and retinol in well-defined groups of healthy, non-smokers, aged 25–45 years, 175 men and 174 women from five European countries (France, UK (Northern Ireland), Republic of Ireland, The Netherlands and Spain). Analysis was centralised and performed within 18 months. Within-gender, vitamin C showed no significant differences between centres. Females in France, Republic of Ireland and Spain had significantly higher plasma vitamin C concentrations than their male counterparts. Serum retinol and α-tocopherol levels were similar between centres, but γ-tocopherol showed a great variability being the lowest in Spain and France, and the highest in The Netherlands. The provitamin A: non-provitamin A carotenoid ratio was similar among countries, whereas the xanthophylls (lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin) to carotenes (α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene) ratio was double in southern (Spain) compared to the northern areas (Northern Ireland and Republic of Ireland). Serum concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin were highest in France and Spain; β-cryptoxanthin was highest in Spain and The Netherlands; trans-lycopene tended to be highest in Irish males and lowest in Spanish males; α-carotene and β-carotene were higher in the French volunteers. Due to the study design, the concentrations of carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E represent physiological ranges achievable by dietary means and may be considered as ‘reference values’ in serum of healthy, non-smoking middle-aged subjects from five European countries. The results suggest that lutein (and zeaxanthin), β-cryptoxanthin, total xanthophylls and γ-tocopherol (and α- : γ-tocopherol) may be important markers related to the healthy or protective effects of the Mediterranean-like diet.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.