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Broad-spectrum antibiotic use can disrupt the gastrointestinal microbiota resulting in diarrhoea. Probiotics may be beneficial in managing this type of diarrhoea. The aim of this 10-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 supplementation on antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in healthy adults. Subjects were randomised to receive 1 week of amoxicillin–clavulanic acid (875 mg/125 mg) once per day, plus a daily dose of 8×109 colony-forming units of a multi-strain probiotic (n 80) or placebo (n 80). The probiotic or placebo intervention was maintained for 1 week after completion of the antibiotic. Primary study outcomes of consistency and frequency of bowel movements were not significantly different between the probiotic and placebo groups. The secondary outcomes of diarrhoea-like defecations, Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale scores, safety parameters and adverse events were not significantly different between the probiotic intervention and the placebo. A post hoc analysis on the duration of diarrhoea-like defecations showed that probiotic intervention reduced the length of these events by 1 full day (probiotic, 2·70 (sem 0·36) d; placebo, 3·71 (sem 0·36) d; P=0·037; effect size=0·52). In conclusion, this study provides novel evidence that L. helveticus R0052 and L. rhamnosus R0011 supplementation significantly reduced the duration of diarrhoea-like defecations in healthy adults receiving antibiotics.
This study examined differences in performance between 20 shy and 20 matched nonshy children on a narrative task and in the way parents scaffolded their narrative performance when reading the wordless book Frog, Where Are You, by Mercer Mayer. Consistent with previous research, results demonstrated that shy children spoke less than their nonshy peers and volunteered less story content. Parents, however, did not differ in how they scaffolded their children's speech turns, nor in the amount of semantic information they provided. Thus, these communicative differences were not accounted for by differential adult scaffolding. Implications for encouraging more verbal behavior from shy children and for the design of wordless storybooks are discussed.
The present investigation examined the relationship between attribute saliency and metaphor interpretation in school children. Ortony's theory that metaphors entail salience imbalance prompted the generation of two types of metaphors, PREDICATE-PROMOTING (PP) and PREDICATE-INTRODUCING (PI) metaphors. An adult sample was used to select metaphors of each type which were then presented to 24 children in each of grades three, five, and seven (mean ages 8; 5, 10; 6 and 12; 8). The children were asked to generate attribute lists for TOPIC and VEHICLE terms and, six weeks later, to verbally explain metaphors containing those terms. Older children correctly interpreted more metaphors than younger children, and at each grade level no difference was observed between the number of correct interpretations of PP and PI metaphors. In addition, at all grade levels the incorrect ground of each child's interpretation errors most often had been listed in his/her attribute lists. This suggests that attribute saliency for the individual perceiving the metaphor plays a key role in the interpretation process.
This study contrasted the interactions of less talkative children and their teacher with those of their peers during classroom “Sharing Time.” Seven reticent children and seven normal peers were observed and audiotape-recorded during 15 sessions across the school year. In addition to speaking less, reticent children engaged in less complex speech than their peers: They spoke more often about objects in the “here and now,” spoke about one topic at a turn, and spoke in shorter utterances. Questions were more frequently directed to the reticent children, but while peers responded to these questions as invitations to contribute further to the topic, reticent children frequently failed to respond to them in like manner. It is suggested that both anxiety and subtle language delays may contribute to the poorer discourse skills reticent children display.
This study examined mothers' accuracy in predicting the responses their children gave and the scores they achieved on two standardized vocabulary tests. Three groups of 16 mothers and their preschool children (specific language-impaired; age-matched, language-normal; and younger, language-matched, language-normal) completed the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised, Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised, and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Mothers overestimated their children's standardized receptive and expressive scores, with the exception that the mothers' estimates of the receptive vocabulary scores for language-impaired children did not differ from the actual test scores. Mothers of age-matched normals were best able to predict the labels their children used to name various pictured items. However, the overall estimates by mothers of language-impaired children were more accurate than those by mothers of language-normal children.
Nineteen shy, twenty-three middle and twenty-five non-shy junior kindergarten children were assessed at school by an unfamiliar examiner, and at home where their parents administered a parallel form of the expressive and receptive vocabulary tests given at school. A speech sample between the child and parent was also collected at home. Shy children spoke less than non-shy and middle children at home. Additionally, the parents of shy children spoke less than parents of non-shy children. Although there were no language differences between the groups, results showed a context effect for expressive vocabulary, in that all groups of children scored higher at school. The pattern of results suggests that previously observed language differences found between shy and non-shy children are not robust, and that testing children at school does not negatively impact their performance.