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The successful implementation of silicon nanowire (NW)-based tunnel-field effect transistors (TFET) critically depends on gaining a clear insight into the quantitative carrier distribution inside such devices. Therefore, we have developed a method based on scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM) which allows quantitative two-dimensional (2D) carrier profiling of fully integrated NW-based TFETs with 2 nm spatial resolution. The keys in our process are optimized NW cleaving and polishing steps, in-house fabricated diamond tips with ultra-high resolution, measurements in high-vacuum and a dedicated calibration procedure accounting for dopant dependant carrier mobilities.
The feasibility of a templated seedless approach for growing segmented p-i-n nanowires –based diodes based on selective epitaxial growth is demonstrated. Such diodes are the basic structure for a TunnelFET device. This approach has the potential for being easily scalable at a full-wafer processing, and there is no theoretical limitation for control on nanowires growth and properties when scaling down their diameters, as opposed to an unconstrained vapor-liquid-solid growth. Moreover, Si/SixGe1-x hetero-structures are implemented, showing that this can improve the TFET ON current not only thanks to the lowered barrier for the band-to-band source-channel tunneling, but additionally thanks to its lower thermal budget for growth, allowing for better control of the abruptness of the doping profile at the source-channel tunneling interface.
The integration of high-density CNT bundles as via interconnects in a CNT/Cu-hybrid BEOL stack is evaluated. CNT via-conduits may greatly improve heat dissipation and as such lower interconnect resistance and improve electromigration resistance. Each carbon shell of the nanotube contributes to electrical and thermal conduction and densities as high as 5×1013 shells per cm2 are estimated necessary. CNT growth processes on BEOL compatible metals are presented with tube densities up to 1012cm−2 and shell densities approaching 1013 cm−2 on blanket substrates. Selective growth of CNT bundles with carbon shell densities around 1012cm−2 is demonstrated with high yield. Ohmic behavior of TiN/CNT/Ti contacts is shown with a CNT via resistivity of 1.2 mΩ cm.
The potential use of carbon nanotubes (CNT) as interconnects requires also new characterization approaches as the existing ones are optimized for three-dimensional materials and do not work for inherently one-dimensional structures like CNTs. Therefore, we have developed a so-called pick-and-place process which allows to remove an individual CNT from a specific site and to place it at another location for further analysis. The approach is based on nanomanipulation combined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This paper presents the pick-and-place concept and explains the different steps required for its successful application. We further demonstrate its power by characterizing individual CNTs using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The developed pick-and-place approach overcomes the challenge of site-specific analysis of CNT interconnects and strongly facilitates the routine analysis of CNTs.
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