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Lifestyle modifications for those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may promote functional stability, lesson disease severity, and improve well-being outcomes such as quality of life. The current analysis of our larger comparative effectiveness study evaluated which specific combinations of lifestyle modifications offered as part of the Mayo Clinic Healthy Action to Benefit Independence in Thinking (HABIT) program contributed to the least functional decline in people with MCI (pwMCI) over 18 months.
We undertook to compare evidence-based interventions with one another rather than to a no-treatment control group. The interventions were five behavioral treatments: computerized cognitive training (CCT), yoga, Memory Support System (MSS) training, peer support group (SG), and wellness education (WE), each delivered to both pwMCI and care partners, in a group-based program. To compare interventions, we randomly withheld one of the five HABIT® interventions in each of the group sessions. We conducted 24 group sessions with between 8 and 20 pwMCI–partner dyads in a session.
Withholding yoga led to the greatest declines in functional ability as measured by the Functional Activities Questionnaire and Clinical Dementia Rating. In addition, memory compensation (calendar) training and cognitive exercise appeared to have associations (moderate effect sizes) with better functional outcomes. Withholding SG or WE appeared to have little effect on functioning at 18 months.
Overall, these results add to the growing literature that physical exercise can play a significant and lasting role in modifying outcomes in a host of medical conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases.
A multi-disciplinary expert group met to discuss vitamin D deficiency in the UK and strategies for improving population intakes and status. Changes to UK Government advice since the 1st Rank Forum on Vitamin D (2009) were discussed, including rationale for setting a reference nutrient intake (10 µg/d; 400 IU/d) for adults and children (4+ years). Current UK data show inadequate intakes among all age groups and high prevalence of low vitamin D status among specific groups (e.g. pregnant women and adolescent males/females). Evidence of widespread deficiency within some minority ethnic groups, resulting in nutritional rickets (particularly among Black and South Asian infants), raised particular concern. Latest data indicate that UK population vitamin D intakes and status reamain relatively unchanged since Government recommendations changed in 2016. Vitamin D food fortification was discussed as a potential strategy to increase population intakes. Data from dose–response and dietary modelling studies indicate dairy products, bread, hens’ eggs and some meats as potential fortification vehicles. Vitamin D3 appears more effective than vitamin D2 for raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, which has implications for choice of fortificant. Other considerations for successful fortification strategies include: (i) need for ‘real-world’ cost information for use in modelling work; (ii) supportive food legislation; (iii) improved consumer and health professional understanding of vitamin D’s importance; (iv) clinical consequences of inadequate vitamin D status and (v) consistent communication of Government advice across health/social care professions, and via the food industry. These areas urgently require further research to enable universal improvement in vitamin D intakes and status in the UK population.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This work will estimate current EPT implementation in Minnesota and provide cost-effectiveness analyses of different implementation scenarios to inform STI treatment policy. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: This research aims to 1) assess current implementation of Expedited Partner Therapy (EPT) as treatment for C. Trachomatis (chlamydia) and N. Gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea) among healthcare providers in Minnesota and to 2) simulate the current burden of chlamydia and gonorrhea infections to test the cost-effectiveness of increasing EPT implementation. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We will conduct key informant interviews (KII) and an online survey of health providers across the continuum of care for chlamydia and gonorrhea treatment. Based on experience in prior studies, the KII sample size is expected to be about 15 informants. KIIs will be carried out among providers who submitted EPT protocols to the Minnesota Department of Health to understand how EPT is currently being implemented. KII results will inform the online survey of health providers, which will estimate how many providers across the state provide EPT. We will distribute the survey through Minnesota health provider networks to achieve a sample of at least 500 health providers. The KII and survey results will inform model structure and parameter values for a compartmental cost-effectiveness model of EPT. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Initial results from KII pilots suggest that EPT is primarily provided through a paper script for the sexual partner of a patient who tests positive for CT or NG by the treating provider. Less commonly, a patient’s partner who is already a patient in the health system may receive notification and treatment through the provider. While EPT is legal in Minnesota, concerns about medical liability for adverse reactions and difficulty obtaining paper scripts in electronic workflows are barriers to implementation. The statewide survey will include questions to estimate the likelihood of EPT provision among providers when these concerns are addressed. These figures will be integrated into the cost-effectiveness model to simulate outcomes and costs across different EPT implementation scenarios. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: The statewide survey will define cost-effectiveness model parameters, including the proportion of providers in the state who currently provide EPT or would be willing to provide EPT under different scenarios. Study findings will be shared with health provider networks and health departments to inform STI treatment procedures and state EPT policies.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Our research focuses on determining rural-urban disparities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management to improve COPD health outcomes in rural areas. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Several methods exist to distinguish rural from urban areas, but it is not clear which method relates most directly to rural-urban health care disparities. To address this, we compared different measures of rurality to measures of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) processes of care among a national sample of veterans. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Retrospective analysis of patients with COPD (2016-2019 by ICD-10 codes) using national Veterans Affairs (VA) data. We assessed rurality by: 1) patient’s residential address, 2) assigned primary care clinic address, and 3) drive time from the patient’s residence to closest primary care clinic. Rurality designations of the residential address and primary care clinic address into urban, rural, and highly rural areas are based on the Rural Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes. The dependent variables were binary outcomes of: 1) documentation of a pulmonary clinic encounter and 2) evidence of spirometry to confirm the diagnosis of COPD. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of 6,765,951 veterans, 1,157,002 (17%) had COPD (Table 1). Although approximately 40% of patients with COPD reside in addresses that are rural and highly rural, a large majority are assigned to primary care clinics in urban areas (82.8%) and reside within 30 minutes to the closest primary care clinic (76.7%) (Table 2). Compared to defining rurality based on patient’s residential address or drive time to closest primary care, defining rurality based on the assigned primary care clinic address was associated with a larger disparity in rates of pulmonary encounter. In contrast, the drive time from the patient’s residence to the closest primary care was the strongest predictor of receipt of spirometry (Figure 1 and Table 3). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Estimates of the severity of rural-urban disparities varied based on the definition of rurality used. For two process measures, definitions of rurality based on where the patient received primary care generated more evidence of disparities than definitions based solely on the patient’s residential address.
To examine the association between family environment variables (parenting styles, family meal atmosphere), gender-based stereotypes and food intake in Latin American adolescents.
Structural equation modelling applied to cross-sectional data, 2017.
Urban and rural sites of San José, Costa Rica.
n 813; 13–18 years old.
Data suggest direct associations between gender-based stereotypes and intake of fruits and vegetables (FV) (β = 0·20, P < 0·05), unhealthy foods (fast food (FF)) (β = −0·24, P < 0·01) and ultra-processed foods (β = −0·15, P < 0·05) among urban girls; intake of legumes among rural girls (β = 0·16, P < 0·05) and intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) among rural boys (β = 0·22, P < 0·05). Family meal atmosphere was associated with legume intake (β = 0·19, P <·05) among rural girls. Authoritative parenting style was associated with FV intake (β = 0·23, P < 0·05) among urban boys and FF intake (β = 0·17, P < 0·05) among urban girls. Authoritarian parenting style was associated with FV consumption (β = 0·19, P < 0·05) among rural boys, and with SSB and FF consumption (β = 0·21, P < 0·05; β = 0·14, P < 0·05, respectively) among urban girls.
Findings are the first to describe the complex family environment and gender-based stereotypes within the context of a Latin American country. They emphasise the need for culturally relevant measurements to characterise the sociocultural context in which parent–adolescent dyads socialise and influence food consumption.
To investigate family structure differences in adolescents’ consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar-added soft drinks with adjustments for socio-demographic and socio-economic variables.
Cross-sectional data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey.
Norwegian primary and secondary schools.
Adolescents (n 4475) aged 11, 13, 15 and 16 years.
After adjusting for covariates, living in a single-mother family was associated with lower vegetable consumption (OR 0·76, 95 % CI 0·63, 0·91) and higher soft drink consumption (OR 1·29, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·57). Living in a mother and stepfather family was negatively associated with fruit (OR 0·71, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·95) and vegetable (OR 0·72, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·97) consumption. Living in a single-father family was associated with lower sweets consumption (OR 0·48, 95 % CI 0·32, 0·72). No significant interactions were demonstrated between family structure and socio-demographic or socio-economic covariates.
The study suggests that an independent association between family structure and adolescents’ food habits exists.
Background: Estimating the burden of intestinal colonization with antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteria (AR-GNB) is critical to understanding their global epidemiology and spread. We aimed to determine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, intestinal colonization due to AR-GNB in population-based hospital and community settings in Chile. Methods: Between December 2018 and May 2019, we enrolled randomly selected hospitalized adults in 4 tertiary-care public hospitals (Antofagasta, Santiago, Curico and Puerto Montt), and adults residing in a community-based cohort in the rural town of Molina. Following informed consent, we collected rectal swabs and epidemiological information through a standardized questionnaire. Swabs were plated onto MacConkey agar with 2 µg/mL ciprofloxacin or ceftazidime. All recovered morphotypes were identified, and antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed via disk diffusion. The primary outcome was the prevalence of colonization with fluoroquinolone (FQ)- or third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)–resistant GNB. The secondary outcome was the prevalence of colonization with multidrug-resistant (MDR) GNB, defined as GNB resistant to ≥3 antibiotic classes. Categories were not mutually exclusive. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to describe risk factors for colonization with these categories. Results: In total, 775 hospitalized adults and 357 community participants were enrolled, with a median age of 60 years (IQR, 42–72) and 55 years (IQR, 48–62) years, respectively. Among hospitalized participants, the prevalence of colonization with FQ- or 3GC-resistant GNB was 47% (95% CI, 43%–50%) and 41% (95% CI, 38%–45%), respectively, whereas the prevalence of MDR-GNB colonization was 27% (95% CI, 24%–31%). In the community setting, the prevalence of colonization with either FQ-, 3GC-resistant GNB, or MDR-GNB was 40% (95% CI, 34%–45%), 29% (95% CI, 24%– 34%), and 5% (95% CI, 3%–8%), respectively. Independent risk factors for hospital MDR-GNB colonization included the hospital of admission, unit of hospitalization (intensive care units carried the highest risk), in-hospital antimicrobial exposure, comorbidities (Charlson index), and length of stay. In the community setting, recent antibiotic exposure (<3 months) predicted colonization with either FQ- or 3GC-resistant GNB, and alcohol consumption was inversely associated with MDR GNB colonization. Conclusions: A high burden of colonization with AR-GNB was observed in this sample of hospitalized and community-dwelling adults in Chile. The high burden of colonization with GNB resistant to commonly used antibiotics such as FQ and 3GC found in community dwellers, suggests that the community may be a relevant source of antibiotic resistance. Efforts to understand relatedness between resistant strains circulating in the community and the hospital are needed.
Understanding differences in social-emotional behavior can help identify atypical development. This study examined the differences in social-emotional development in children at increased risk of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis (infant siblings of children diagnosed with the disorder). Parents completed the Brief Infant-Toddler Social-Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) to determine its ability to flag children with later-diagnosed ASD in a high-risk (HR) sibling population. Parents of HR (n = 311) and low-risk (LR; no family history of ASD; n = 127) children completed the BITSEA when their children were 18 months old and all children underwent a diagnostic assessment for ASD at age 3 years. All six subscales of the BITSEA (Problems, Competence, ASD Problems, ASD Competence, Total ASD Score, and Red Flags) distinguished between those in the HR group who were diagnosed with ASD (n = 84) compared to non-ASD-diagnosed children (both HR-N and LR). One subscale (BITSEA Competence) differentiated between the HR children not diagnosed with ASD and the LR group. The results suggest that tracking early social-emotional development may have implications for all HR children, as they are at increased risk of ASD but also other developmental or mental health conditions.
We present two complementary model-based methods for calculating the risk of international spread of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 from the outbreak epicentre. One model aims to calculate the number of cases that would be exported from an endemic country to disease-free regions by travellers. The second model calculates the probability that an infected traveller will generate at least one secondary autochthonous case in the visited country. Although this paper focuses on the data from China, our methods can be adapted to calculate the risk of importation and subsequent outbreaks. We found an average R0 = 5.31 (ranging from 4.08 to 7.91) and a risk of spreading of 0.75 latent individuals per 1000 travellers. In addition, one infective traveller would be able to generate at least one secondary autochthonous case in the visited country with a probability of 23%.
Previous research has identified a lack of clarification regarding paramedic professional obligation to work. Understanding community expectations of paramedics will provide some clarity around this issue. The objective of this research was to explore the expectations of a sample of Australian community members regarding the professional obligation of paramedics to respond during pandemics.
The authors used qualitative methods to gather Australian community member perspectives immediately before the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Focus groups were used for data collection, and a thematic analysis was conducted.
The findings revealed 9 key themes: context of obligation (normal operations versus crisis situation), hierarchy of obligation (individual versus organizational obligation), risk acceptability, acceptable occupational risk (it’s part of the job), access to personal protective equipment, legal and ethical guidelines, education and training, safety, and acceptable limitations to obligation. The factors identified as being acceptable limitations to professional obligation are presented as further sub-themes: physical health, mental health, and competing personal obligations.
The issue of professional obligation must be addressed by ambulance services as a matter of urgency, especially in light of the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic. Further research is recommended to understand how community member expectations evolve during and after the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic.
UK Biobank is a well-characterised cohort of over 500 000 participants including genetics, environmental data and imaging. An online mental health questionnaire was designed for UK Biobank participants to expand its potential.
Describe the development, implementation and results of this questionnaire.
An expert working group designed the questionnaire, using established measures where possible, and consulting a patient group. Operational criteria were agreed for defining likely disorder and risk states, including lifetime depression, mania/hypomania, generalised anxiety disorder, unusual experiences and self-harm, and current post-traumatic stress and hazardous/harmful alcohol use.
A total of 157 366 completed online questionnaires were available by August 2017. Participants were aged 45–82 (53% were ≥65 years) and 57% women. Comparison of self-reported diagnosed mental disorder with a contemporary study shows a similar prevalence, despite respondents being of higher average socioeconomic status. Lifetime depression was a common finding, with 24% (37 434) of participants meeting criteria and current hazardous/harmful alcohol use criteria were met by 21% (32 602), whereas other criteria were met by less than 8% of the participants. There was extensive comorbidity among the syndromes. Mental disorders were associated with a high neuroticism score, adverse life events and long-term illness; addiction and bipolar affective disorder in particular were associated with measures of deprivation.
The UK Biobank questionnaire represents a very large mental health survey in itself, and the results presented here show high face validity, although caution is needed because of selection bias. Built into UK Biobank, these data intersect with other health data to offer unparalleled potential for crosscutting biomedical research involving mental health.
Leafy spurge, a noxious perennial weed, is a major threat to the prairie ecosystem in North America. Strategic planning to control leafy spurge requires monitoring its spatial distribution and spread. The ability to detect flowering leafy spurge at two biological control sites in southern Saskatchewan, Canada, was investigated using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system. Three flight missions were conducted on June 30, 2016, during the leafy spurge flowering period. Imagery was acquired at four flight heights and one or two acquisition times, depending on the site. The sites were reflown on June 28, 2017, to evaluate the change in flowering leafy spurge over time. Mixture tuned matched filtering (MTMF) and hue, intensity, and saturation (HIS) threshold analyses were used to determine flowering leafy spurge cover. Flight height of 30 m was optimal; the strongest relationships between UAV and ground estimates of leafy spurge cover (r2 = 0.76 to 0.90; normalized root mean square error [NRMSE] = 0.10 to 0.13) and stem density (r2 = 0.72 to 0.75) were observed. Detection was not significantly affected by the image analysis method (P > 0.05). Flowering leafy spurge cover estimates were similar using HIS (1.9% to 14.8%) and MTMF (2.1% to 10.3%) and agreed with the ground estimates (using HIS: r2 = 0.64 to 0.93, NRMSE = 0.08 to 0.25; using MTMF: r2 = 0.64 to 0.90, NRMSE = 0.10 to 0.27). The reduction in flowering leafy spurge cover between 2016 and 2017 detected using UAV images and HIS (8.1% at site 1 and 2.7% at site 2) was consistent with that based on ground digital photographs (10% at site 1 and 1.8% at site 2). UAV imagery is a useful tool for accurately detecting flowering leafy spurge and could be used for routine monitoring purposes in a biological control program.
Introduction: The present study was conducted to examine yogurt consumption patterns and investigate associations between yogurt consumption and nutrient intake using data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) rolling programme in the United Kingdom.
Materials and Methods: Children aged 1.5–18 years old (N = 2564) and adults aged 19 years or older (N = 2705) from the NDNS 2012/13–2015/16 were included in the study. The average of four-day food diary data was used for analysis. Yogurt included all food items from the yogurt, fromage frais and dairy dessert food group, excluding dairy dessert products. Participants were classified as yogurt eaters if they reported consumption of yogurt at least once during the four days. Percentage contribution of yogurt to daily intake of nutrients in yogurt eaters was calculated. Multiple linear regression analyses for surveys were used to compare differences in energy and nutrient intake between yogurt eaters and non-eaters, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Energy intake was also adjusted for in nutrient data analysis.
Results: The prevalence of yogurt consumption was 53% in children and 39% in adults. The daily intake of yogurt was 105 g and 132 g, respectively. Yogurt is an important source of calcium and riboflavin in children and adults, as well as vitamin D in children, accounting for over 15% of daily intake of these nutrients. Compared to non-eaters, yogurt eaters had significantly higher energy intake in both children and adults; they also had significantly higher intake of protein, fiber, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, folate, riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamin C, as well as significantly lower intake of sodium. Child yogurt eaters also had significantly higher intake of vitamin A and vitamin B12, and lower intake of total fat, whereas adult yogurt eaters had significantly higher intake of carbohydrate, iron, zinc, vitamin D and vitamin E, compared to non-eaters. Both yogurt eaters in children and adults had higher intake of total sugar; nonetheless, non-milk extrinsic sugar intake did not differ by yogurt consumption status in children, and it was significantly lower in adult yogurt eaters. Saturated fat intake did not differ by yogurt consumption status in children and adults.
Discussion: Yogurt is an important dietary source of several nutrients in the United Kingdom. Its consumption was positively associated with intake of total energy and many nutrients to encourage, but not positively associated with intake of sodium, total fat, saturated fat, and non-milk extrinsic sugar in both children and adults.
Ready to eat cereal (RTEC) is a nutrient dense food in a typical western diet. Studies have reported better nutrient intake associated with RTEC consumption in other countries, however, little is known in the United Kingdom. The objective of the study was to examine consumption patterns of RTEC and to investigate associations between RTEC consumption and nutrient intake in a nationally representative sample in the United Kingdom.
Materials and Methods
Children aged 1.5–18 years old (N = 2564) and adults aged 19 years or older (N = 2705) from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme 2012/13–2015/16 were included in the study. The average of four-day food diary data was used for analysis. RTEC included all food items from the high fiber breakfast cereals and other breakfast cereals, excluding porridge and instant hot oat cereals. Participants were classified as RTEC eaters if they reported consumption of RTEC at least once during the four days. Percentage contribution of RTEC to daily intake of nutrients in RTEC eaters was calculated. Differences in energy and nutrient intake between RTEC eaters and non-eaters were compared using multiple linear regression analyses for surveys, adjusting for age, gender, and equivalized income level. Energy intake was also included as a covariate in the analyses of nutrients intake.
About 75% of children were RTEC eaters, whereas 52% of adults reported RTEC consumption. Their daily intake of RTEC were 35.1 g and 42.8 g, respectively. RTEC is a critical source of several key vitamins and minerals. For example, RTEC contributed to over 20% of daily intake of iron, folate, vitamin D, riboflavin, and thiamin in both children and adults who consumed RTEC. Compared to non-eaters, both child and adult RTEC eaters had significantly higher intake of total energy, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, potassium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, niacin, folate, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, as well as significantly lower intake of sodium and total fat. Adult RTEC eaters also had higher intake of vitamin C and vitamin D. There was no difference in intake of non-milk extrinsic sugar by RTEC consumption status in both children and adults, although total sugar intake was higher in adult RTEC eaters.
RTEC is an important dietary source of key nutrients in the United Kingdom. Consumption of RTEC is associated with higher intake of nutrients to encourage and lower intake of nutrients to limit, in both children and adults in the United Kingdom.
An increase in reported psychological distress, particularly among adolescent girls, is observed across a range of countries. Whether a similar trend exists among students in higher education remains unknown. The aim of the current study was to describe trends in self-reported psychological distress among Norwegian college and university students from 2010 to 2018.
We employed data from the Students' Health and Wellbeing Study (SHoT), a nationwide survey for higher education in Norway including full-time students aged 18–34. Numbers of participants (participation rates) were n = 6065 (23%) in 2010, n = 13 663 (29%) in 2014 and n = 49 321 (31%) in 2018. Psychological distress was measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25).
Overall, a statistically significant increase in self-reported psychological distress was observed over time across gender and age-groups. HSCL-25 scores were markedly higher for women than for men at all time-points. Effect-size of the mean change was also stronger for women (time-by-gender interaction: χ2 = 70.02, df = 2, p < 0.001): in women, mean HSCL-25 score increased from 1.62 in 2010 to 1.82 in 2018, yielding a mean change effect-size of 0.40. The corresponding change in men was from 1.42 in 2010 to 1.53 in 2018, giving an effect-size of 0.26.
Both the level and increase in self-reported psychological distress among Norwegian students in higher education are potentially worrying. Several mechanisms may contribute to the observed trend, including changes in response style and actual increase in distress. The relative low response rates in SHoT warrant caution when interpreting and generalising the findings.
Wind-driven snow redistribution can increase the spatial heterogeneity of snow accumulation on ice caps and ice sheets, and may prove crucial for the initiation and survival of glaciers in areas of marginal glaciation. We present a snowdrift model (Snow_Blow), which extends and improves the model of Purves, Mackaness and Sugden (1999, Journal of Quaternary Science 14, 313–321). The model calculates spatial variations in relative snow accumulation that result from variations in topography, using a digital elevation model (DEM) and wind direction as inputs. Improvements include snow redistribution using a flux routing algorithm, DEM resolution independence and the addition of a slope curvature component. This paper tests Snow_Blow in Antarctica (a modern environment) and reveals its potential for application in palaeoenvironmental settings, where input meteorological data are unavailable and difficult to estimate. Specifically, Snow_Blow is applied to the Ellsworth Mountains in West Antarctica where ablation is considered to be predominantly related to wind erosion processes. We find that Snow_Blow is able to replicate well the existing distribution of accumulating snow and snow erosion as recorded in and around Blue Ice Areas. Lastly, a variety of model parameters are tested, including depositional distance and erosion vs wind speed, to provide the most likely input parameters for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions.
In patients with β-lactam allergies, administration of non–β-lactam surgical prophylaxis is associated with increased risk of infection. Although many patients self-report β-lactam allergies, most are unconfirmed or mislabeled. A quality improvement process, utilizing a structured β-lactam allergy tool, was implemented to improve the utilization of preferred β-lactam surgical prophylaxis.