To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Extreme neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) can be a heavy burden for nursing home (NH)-residents, relatives and caregivers. When conventional treatments are ineffective or have intolerable side effects, extreme NPS can be considered refractory. In these situations, continuous palliative sedation (CPS) is sometimes administered. We explored the trajectory leading to CPS and its application in NH-residents with dementia and refractory NPS.
A qualitative interview study was performed in 2017. Relatives, elderly care physicians and other staff members involved with three NH-residents with dementia and extreme refractory NPS who received CPS were interviewed. These NH-residents lived on dementia special care units of three NHs in the Netherlands. We used consecutive sampling to select participants. Medical files were studied. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. Transcriptions were analyzed with thematic analysis, including directed content analysis.
Nine in-depth interviews with fourteen participants were held. Analysis resulted in five main themes with several subthemes reflecting phases of the trajectory leading to CPS and the CPS application itself, a sixth main theme concerned evaluations thereof. According to the first theme (run-up), the suffering of the NH-resident was described as unbearable/an inner struggle. Participants still had hope for improvement. Concerning the second theme (turning point), hope was lost, participants were convinced they had tried everything and experienced feelings of powerlessness and failure. Regarding theme three (considering CPS), intermittent sedation was applied in all three cases and peer consultation was employed. Honoring the wish of the NH-resident and therapeutic uncertainties, among others, were important subthemes. According to theme four (decision to start CPS), in each case one specific aspect was a decisive trigger for administering CPS. Concerning theme five (applying CPS) feelings of relief were experienced after starting with CPS.
The trajectory leading up to CPS in NH-residents with dementia and extreme refractory NPS was complex and burdensome, but the application led to relief and contentment of all those involved. We recommend to include external consultation in the decision process and to apply intermittent sedation as a preceding step when CPS is considered.
Simulation plays an integral role in the Canadian healthcare system with applications in quality improvement, systems development, and medical education. High-quality, simulation-based research will ensure its effective use. This study sought to summarize simulation-based research activity and its facilitators and barriers, as well as establish priorities for simulation-based research in Canadian emergency medicine (EM).
Simulation-leads from Canadian departments or divisions of EM associated with a general FRCP-EM training program surveyed and documented active EM simulation-based research at their institutions and identified the perceived facilitators and barriers. Priorities for simulation-based research were generated by simulation-leads via a second survey; these were grouped into themes and finally endorsed by consensus during an in-person meeting of simulation leads. Priority themes were also reviewed by senior simulation educators.
Twenty simulation-leads representing all 14 invited institutions participated in the study between February and May, 2018. Sixty-two active, simulation-based research projects were identified (median per institution = 4.5, IQR 4), as well as six common facilitators and five barriers. Forty-nine priorities for simulation-based research were reported and summarized into eight themes: simulation in competency-based medical education, simulation for inter-professional learning, simulation for summative assessment, simulation for continuing professional development, national curricular development, best practices in simulation-based education, simulation-based education outcomes, and simulation as an investigative methodology.
This study summarized simulation-based research activity in EM in Canada, identified its perceived facilitators and barriers, and built national consensus on priority research themes. This represents the first step in the development of a simulation-based research agenda specific to Canadian EM.
Long-term care facilities have partly taken over the traditional asylum function of psychiatric hospitals and house an increasing group of patients with mental–physical multimorbidity (MPM). Little is known about the characteristics, behavior, and care dependency of these patients. This paper aims to describe these aspects.
Explorative, descriptive study among patients with MPM without dementia (n = 142), living in 17 geronto-psychiatric nursing home (NH) units across the Netherlands, stratified by those referred from mental healthcare services (MHS) and other healthcare services (OHS). Data collection consisted of chart review, semi-structured interviews, (brief) neuropsychological testing, and self-report questionnaires. Patients referred from MHS (n = 58) and from OHS (n = 84) were compared by descriptive statistics.
Despite exclusion of patients with dementia, the majority of participants had cognitive impairment. Prevalence and severity of frontal impairment were high, as well as the number of patients with clinically relevant neuropsychiatric symptoms. MHS patients were younger, had more chronic psychiatric disorders, and more often used antipsychotics. Neuropsychiatric symptoms, domains of care dependency, physical conditions and concomitant medication use differed not significantly between the subgroups.
Both groups of patients with MPM showed heterogeneity in various aspects but differed not significantly regarding the consequences of their multimorbidity. In a variety of characteristics, this group seems to be different from other NH patient groups, which requires extra knowledge and skills of the staff. To uncover which knowledge and skills are necessary, the next step should be to investigate the specific care needs of NH patients with MPM without dementia.
To identify barriers to fruit and vegetable intake for Indigenous Australian children and quantify factors related to these barriers, to help understand why children do not meet recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake.
We examined factors related to carer-reported barriers using multilevel Poisson models (robust variance); a key informant focus group guided our interpretation of findings.
Eleven diverse sites across Australia.
Australian Indigenous children and their carers (N 1230) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children.
Almost half (45 %; n 555/1230) of carers reported barriers to their children’s fruit and vegetable intake. Dislike of fruit and vegetables was the most common barrier, reported by 32·9 % of carers; however, we identified few factors associated with dislike. Carers were more than ten times less likely to report barriers to accessing fruit and vegetables if they lived large cities v. very remote areas. Within urban and inner regional areas, child and carer well-being, financial security, suitable housing and community cohesion promoted access to fruit and vegetables.
In this national Indigenous Australian sample, almost half of carers faced barriers to providing their children with a healthy diet. Both remote/outer regional carers and disadvantaged urban/inner regional carers faced problems accessing fruit and vegetables for their children. Where vegetables were accessible, children’s dislike was a substantial barrier. Nutrition promotion must address the broader family, community, environmental and cultural contexts that impact nutrition, and should draw on the strengths of Indigenous families and communities.
Over the last decade, the explosion in research and Development associated with
nanoscalar materials has continued apace. In parallel with this has been the
rapid rise of both sustainable materials and, as a consequence, Natural,
Cellular and Responsive material systems. Many of these originate from
inorganic, inorganic-organic hybrid composites and polymeric and bio-nano
polymeric systems which exhibit intrinsic physico-chemical properties that can
be classed as ‘soft’. That is flexible, malleable,
lightweight, transparent or semi-transparent and stretchable in character and
which can also offer both biocompatible and bioresorbable characteristics
essential to useable and sustainable material systems.
This paper describes some of the ways in which we are beginning to understand,
explain and exploit ‘soft’ technology. In particular the
interactive role of creative design and innovative material science linked
through new fabrication methodologies that have, as their common purpose, a
focus on compelling Human centred needs. Examples are health, wellness, ambient
assistance and urgent improvements in cleanliness, hygiene and nutrition.
This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cardiac disorders among children with mid-exertional syncope evaluated by a paediatric cardiologist, determine how often a diagnosis was not established, and define potential predictors to differentiate cardiac from non-cardiac causes.
We carried out a single-centre, retrospective review of children who presented for cardiac evaluation due to a history of exertional syncope between 1999 and 2012. Inclusion criteria included the following: (1) age ⩽18 years; (2) mid-exertional syncope; (3) electrocardiogram, echocardiogram and an exercise stress test, electrophysiology study, or tilt test, with exception of long QT, which did not require additional testing; and (4) evaluation by a paediatric cardiologist. Mid-exertional syncope was defined as loss of consciousness in the midst of active physical activity. Patients with peri-exertional syncope immediately surrounding but not during active physical exertion were excluded.
A total of 60 patients met the criteria for mid-exertional syncope; 32 (53%) were diagnosed with cardiac syncope and 28 with non-cardiac syncope. A majority of cardiac patients were diagnosed with an electrical myopathy, the most common being Long QT syndrome. In nearly half of the patients, a diagnosis could not be established or syncope was felt to be vasovagal in nature. Neither the type of exertional activity nor the symptoms or lack of symptoms occurring before, immediately preceding, and after the syncopal event differentiated those with or without a cardiac diagnosis.
Children with mid-exertional syncope are at risk for cardiac disease and warrant evaluation. Reported symptoms may not differentiate benign causes from life-threatening disease.
The field of Mobile health (mHealth), which includes mobile phone applications (apps), is growing rapidly and has the potential to transform healthcare by increasing its quality and efficiency. The present paper focuses particularly on mobile technology for body weight management, including mobile phone apps for weight loss and the available evidence on their effectiveness. Translation of behaviour change theory into weight management strategies, including integration in mobile technology is also discussed. Moreover, the paper presents and discusses the myPace platform as a case in point. There is little clinical evidence on the effectiveness of currently available mobile phone apps in enabling behaviour change and improving health-related outcomes, including sustained body weight loss. Moreover, it is unclear to what extent these apps have been developed in collaboration with health professionals, such as dietitians, and the extent to which apps draw on and operationalise behaviour change techniques has not been explored. Furthermore, presently weight management apps are not built for use as part of dietetic practice, or indeed healthcare more widely, where face-to-face engagement is fundamental for instituting the building blocks for sustained lifestyle change. myPace is an innovative mobile technology for weight management meant to be embedded into and to enhance dietetic practice. Developed out of systematic, iterative stages of engagement with dietitians and consumers, it is uniquely designed to complement and support the trusted health practitioner–patient relationship. Future mHealth technology would benefit if engagement with health professionals and/or targeted patient groups, and behaviour change theory stood as the basis for technology development. Particularly, integrating technology into routine health care practice, rather than replacing one with the other, could be the way forward.
Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) often occur in patients with dementia. Understanding the course of NPS in dementia is important for healthcare professionals for psycho-educational purposes and adequate and timely interventions to prevent or diminish NPS as much as possible.
We conducted a systematic literature search in several electronic databases. We combined search strings for the terms dementia, community-dwelling, cohort studies and NPS. Screening titles and abstracts, assessing the methodological quality and data-extraction were independently conducted by at least two authors.
This literature search revealed 6605 unique records of which 23 studies were included in data synthesis. In total 7184 patients participated in the included studies with a mean number of 312. Sixty percent of the participants were female and the mean age of all participants was 74.8 years. Follow-up varied between 1 and 6 years; in 17 studies loss to follow-up was less than 20% per year. NPS are highly prevalent, incident and persistent although frequency parameters vary considerably across studies. Delusions/delusional misidentification, wandering/agitation, aberrant motor behavior/motor hyperactivity and apathy are the most common NPS. For hallucinations, delusions/delusional misidentification, paranoia, aggression, wandering/agitation, aberrant motor behavior/motor hyperactivity, disinhibition, apathy, and sleep disturbance increasing trends in point prevalence rates have been found.
NPS in community-dwelling patients are frequent and persistent. The increasing trends of several NPS in the course of dementia require a preventive approach of professional caretakers. For such an approach, a timely diagnosis and adequate professional support to prevent or diminish these problems is necessary.
Although exact figures are lacking, many studies show that mental–physical multimorbidity is common in older people (van den Brink et al., 2013). Particularly, older patients with a chronic disease often have psychiatric disorders (Verdurmen et al., 2006). Conversely, medical comorbidity is common in psychiatric patients, especially cardiovascular, pulmonary, and neurological disorders and diabetes (Lyketsos et al., 2002).
Background: Aging societies will be confronted with increased numbers of long-term care (LTC) residents with multimorbidity of physical and mental disorders other than dementia. Knowledge about the prevalence rates, medical and psychosocial characteristics, and care needs of this particular group of residents is mandatory for providing high-quality and evidence-based care. The purpose of this paper was to review the literature regarding these features.
Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL from January 1, 1988 to August 16, 2011. Two reviewers independently assessed eligibility of studies on pre-established inclusion criteria as well as methodological quality using standardized checklists.
Results: Seventeen articles were included. Only one small study describes multimorbidity of a wide range of chronic psychiatric and somatic conditions in LTC residents and suggests that physical–mental multimorbidity is rather rule than exception. All other studies show prevalence rates of comorbid physical and mental illnesses (range, 0.5%–64.7%), roughly in line with reported prevalence rates among community-dwelling older people. LTC residents with mental–physical multimorbidity were younger than other LTC residents and had more cognitive impairment, no dementia, and problem behaviors. Care needs of these residents were not described.
Conclusions: Although exact figures are lacking, mental–physical multimorbidity is common in LTC residents. Given the specific characteristics of the pertaining residents, more knowledge of their specific care needs is essential. The first step now should be to perform research on symptoms and behavior, which seem more informative than diagnostic labels as well as care needs of LTC residents with mental–physical multimorbidity.
Mass casualty triage is the process of prioritizing multiple victims when resources are not sufficient to treat everyone immediately. No national guideline for mass casualty triage exists in the United States. The lack of a national guideline has resulted in variability in triage processes, tags, and nomenclature. This variability has the potential to inject confusion and miscommunication into the disaster incident, particularly when multiple jurisdictions are involved. The Model Uniform Core Criteria for Mass Casualty Triage were developed to be a national guideline for mass casualty triage to ensure interoperability and standardization when responding to a mass casualty incident. The Core Criteria consist of 4 categories: general considerations, global sorting, lifesaving interventions, and individual assessment of triage category. The criteria within each of these categories were developed by a workgroup of experts representing national stakeholder organizations who used the best available science and, when necessary, consensus opinion. This article describes how the Model Uniform Core Criteria for Mass Casualty Triage were developed.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2011;5:129-137)
Well-tolerated and effective therapies for bipolar mania are required.
To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole as acute and maintenance of effect therapy in patients with bipolar I disorder experiencing manic or mixed episodes.
Patients were randomised to double-blind aripiprazole (15 or 30 mg/day; n=167) placebo (n=153) or haloperidol (5–15 mg/day, n=165) for 3 weeks (trial registration NCT00097266). Aripiprazole- and haloperidol-treated patients remained on masked treatment for 9 additional weeks.
Mean change in Young Mania Rating Scale Total score (primary end-point) at week 3 was significantly greater with aripiprazole (–12.0; P<0.05) and haloperidol (–12.8; P<0.01) than with placebo (–9.7). Improvements were maintained to week 12 for aripiprazole (–17.2) and haloperidol (–17.8). Aripiprazole was well tolerated. Extrapyramidal adverse events were more frequent with haloperidol than aripiprazole (53.3% v. 23.5%).
Clinical improvements with aripiprazole were sustained to week 12. Aripiprazole was generally well tolerated.
The use of an ion beam assist during the concurrent deposition of cubic materials can result in the growth of crystallographically oriented thin films. A model system, magnesium oxide (MgO), has been successfully used as a biaxially textured template film and develops texture in a different manner from that of other well-studied materials, like yttria-stablized zirconia. Here, we present data on the initial nucleation of biaxial texture in this model system using a novel in-situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) substrate combined with in-situ reflected high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). Temporal correlation of mass uptake with the RHEED images of the growing surface can be used to elucidate the mechanism of texture development in these films. Experimental data shows that the initially polycrystalline MgO film develops biaxial crystallographic texture at a thickness of ˜2 nm, regardless of the ion-to-molecule ratio. RHEED images show the onset of texture occurs quickly and is somewhat analogous to a solid phase re-crystallization process with crystallite sizes of ˜3 to 4 nm. Imaging with transmission electron microscopy has corroborated these observations. Changes in the ion-to-molecule ratio can influence the crystallite size and affect the nucleation density of these films. Growth of these films on various substrates changes the sticking coefficient of the MgO and influences the nucleation density and film growth mode as well. This opens the possibility of using MgO and other materials to develop biaxially textured crystallites with a narrow, specified size distribution for nanoscale applications.
Semi-graphoids are combinatorial structures that arise in statistical learning theory. They are equivalent to convex rank tests and to polyhedral fans that coarsen the reflection arrangement of the symmetric group Sn. In this paper we resolve two problems on semi-graphoids posed in Studený's book (2005), and we answer a related question of Postnikov, Reiner and Williams on generalized permutohedra. We also study the semigroup and the toric ideal associated with semi-graphoids.
Ian Snape, Contaminants Geochemist Working for the Australian Antarctic Division in Tasmania,
Larry Acomb, Geosphere Inc., 3055 Seawind Drive, Anchorage AK 99516, USA,
David L. Barnes, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, PO Box 755900, Fairbanks AK 99775, USA,
Steve Bainbridge, Contaminated Sites Program, Division of Spill Prevention and Response, Department of Environmental Conservation, 610 University Avenue, Fairbanks AK 99709–3643, USA,
Robert Eno, Department of Sustainable Development, Government of Nunavut, PO Box 1000, Stn 1195, Iqaluit NU X0A 0H0, Canada,
Dennis M. Filler, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, PO Box 755900, Fairbanks AK 99775, USA,
Natalie Plato, Department of Sustainable Development, Government of Nunavut, PO Box 1000, Stn 1195, Iqaluit NU X0A 0H0, Canada,
John S. Poland, Analytical Services Unit, Queens University, Kingston ON K7L 3N6, Canada,
Tania C. Raymond, Environmental Protection and Change Program, Australian Antarctic Division, Channel Highway, Kingston, Tasmania 7050, Australia,
John L. Rayner, Environmental Protection and Change Program, Australian Antarctic Division, Channel Highway, Kingston, Tasmania 7050, Australia,
Martin J. Riddle, Environmental Protection and Change Program, Australian Antarctic Division, Channel Highway, Kingston, Tasmania 7050, Australia,
Anne G. Rike, Dept. of Environmental Technology, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, PO Box 3930, Ullevaal Stadion, N-0806 Oslo, Norway,
Allison Rutter, Analytical Services Unit, Queens University, Kingston ON K7L 3N6, Canada,
Alexis N. Schafer, University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Canada S7N 5A8,
Steven D. Siciliano, University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon SK S7N 5A8, Canada,
James L. Walworth, Dept. of Soil Water and Environmental Science, University of Arizona, 429 Shantz Bldg. #38, Tucson AZ 85721, USA