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This paper presents a systematic comparison of the relationship between transmission line characteristic impedance and Q-factor of CPW, slow-wave CPW, microstrip, and slow-wave microstrip in the same CMOS back-end-of-line process. It is found that the characteristic impedance for optimal Q-factor depends on the ground-to-ground spacing of the slow-wave transmission line. Although the media are shown to be similar from a mode of propagation point of view, the 60-GHz optimal Q-factor for slow-wave transmission lines is achieved when the characteristic impedance is ≈23 Ω for slow-wave CPWs and ≈43 Ω for slow-wave microstrip lines, with Q-factor increasing for wider ground plane gaps. Moreover, it is shown that slow-wave CPW is found to have a 12% higher optimal Q-factor than slow-wave microstrip for a similar chip area. The data presented here may be used in selecting Z0 values for S-MS and S-CPW passives in CMOS that maximize transmission line Q-factors.
COVID-19 altered research in Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) hubs in an unprecedented manner, leading to adjustments for COVID-19 research.
CTSA members volunteered to conduct a review on the impact of CTSA network on COVID-19 pandemic with the assistance from NIH survey team in October 2020. The survey questions included the involvement of CTSAs in decision-making concerning the prioritization of COVID-19 studies. Descriptive and statistical analyses were conducted to analyze the survey data.
60 of the 64 CTSAs completed the survey. Most CTSAs lacked preparedness but promptly responded to the pandemic. Early disruption of research triggered, enhanced CTSA engagement, creation of dedicated research areas and triage for prioritization of COVID-19 studies. CTSAs involvement in decision-making were 16.75 times more likely to create dedicated diagnostic laboratories (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.17–129.39; P < 0.01). Likewise, institutions with internal funding were 3.88 times more likely to establish COVID-19 dedicated research (95% CI = 1.12–13.40; P < 0.05). CTSAs were instrumental in securing funds and facilitating establishment of laboratory/clinical spaces for COVID-19 research. Workflow was modified to support contracting and IRB review at most institutions with CTSAs. To mitigate chaos generated by competing clinical trials, central feasibility committees were often formed for orderly review/prioritization.
The lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic emphasize the pivotal role of CTSAs in prioritizing studies and establishing the necessary research infrastructure, and the importance of prompt and flexible research leadership with decision-making capacity to manage future pandemics.
A model is presented for the bouncing dynamics of a fluid-immersed sphere impacting normally a textured wall with micropillars. By taking into account the hydrodynamic and contact interactions between the smooth sphere and the textured wall, the complete motion of the sphere is recovered when approaching, colliding with and bouncing off the wall. We demonstrate that the critical Stokes number for the bouncing transition,
, is the sum of two contributions corresponding to dissipation prior to and during the collision, both contributions being critically influenced by the geometrical parameters of the model roughness. The experimental data obtained from interferometric measurements are found to be in agreement with the theoretical predictions. In the bouncing regime, the coefficient of restitution is also derived analytically and shows a linear evolution with the Stokes number,
, just above the bouncing transition, in agreement with the experimental data obtained very close to
Durum wheat culture requires a high level of N fertilization to achieve ideal protein concentration for semolina and pasta quality, contributing to N losses. Optimizing plant N use efficiency could improve agro-environmental balance. In the current paper, we studied the impact of the marine (DPI4913) and fungal (AF086) extracts (biostimulants) applied on leaves on growth, N absorption and N fluxes in durum wheat in field and greenhouse experiments. In the field, 15NO3− and 15NH4+ were injected into the soil; in the greenhouse, N of the flag-leaf was labelled with 15NH4+. Flag-leaf senescence was studied by estimating leaf chlorophyll concentration. In greenhouse, biostimulants increased grain yield, total N in plant and the proportion of plant N in ears. When water was limited in greenhouse experiment, neither biostimulants had any effect. In the field, DPI4913 increased soil fertilizer-derived 15N accumulated in grains. In the greenhouse, biostimulants increased the proportion of 15N applied to the flag-leaf recovered in grains and accelerated leaf senescence. For plants treated with biostimulants, flag-leaf N resorption increased. Biostimulants had a larger positive impact on mineral N root uptake than on N remobilization. In conclusion, our study has shown that DPI4913 and AF086 can promote plant growth and grain yield, N uptake and remobilization. Thus, these biostimulants could be used to optimize durum wheat N fertilization and contribute to reduced N losses.
Twenty-first century urbanization poses increasing challenges for mental health. Epidemiological studies have shown that mental health problems often accumulate in urban areas, compared to rural areas, and suggested possible underlying causes associated with the social and physical urban environments. Emerging work indicates complex urban effects that depend on many individual and contextual factors at the neighbourhood and country level and novel experimental work is starting to dissect potential underlying mechanisms. This review summarizes findings from epidemiology and population-based studies, neuroscience, experimental and experience-based research and illustrates how a combined approach can move the field towards an increased understanding of the urbanicity-mental health nexus.
Brannerite (UTi2O6) is among the major uranium-bearing minerals found in ore deposits, however as it has been long considered as a refractory mineral for leaching it is currently disregarded in ore deposits. Brannerite is found in a variety of geological environments with the most common occurrences being hydrothermal and pegmatitic. On the basis of scanning electron microscopy observations coupled with electron probe micro-analyses and laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer analyses, this study describes the morphological features and the major- and trace-element abundances of brannerite samples from five hydrothermal and five pegmatitic localities across the world. Mineral compositions are also compared with observations from transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectrometry showing that brannerite is amorphous. Significant results include the definition of substitution trends and REE patterns, which are characteristics of either an occurrence or genetic type (hydrothermal and pegmatitic). Hence, in combination, it is possible to obtain reliable constraints for establishing a geochemical classification of brannerite. Inferred fingerprints have direct implications for forensic science and the exploration industry; they also contribute to a better understanding of metallogenic processes and to optimising the extraction of uranium.
Aphasia recovery depends on neural reorganization, which can be enhanced by speech-language therapy and noninvasive brain stimulation. Several studies suggested that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) associated with speech-language therapy may improve verbal performance evaluated by analytic tests, but none focused on spontaneous speech. We explored the effect of bihemispheric tDCS on spontaneous speech in patients with poststroke aphasia.
In this multicentric controlled randomized cross-over double-blind study, we included 10 patients with poststroke aphasia (4 had aphasia >6 months and 6 with aphasia <6 months). We combined the sessions of speech-language therapy and bihemispheric tDCS (2 mA, 20 min). After three baseline speech evaluations (1/week), two different conditions were randomly consecutively proposed: active and sham tDCS over 3 weeks with 1 week of washout in between. The main outcome measure was the number of different nouns used in 2 min to answer the question “what is your job.”
There was no significant difference between conditions concerning the main outcome measure (p = .47) nor in the number of verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, repetitions, blank ideas, ideas, utterances with grammatical errors or paraphasias used. Other cognitive functions (verbal working memory, neglect, or verbal fluency) were not significantly improved in the tDCS group. No adverse events occurred.
Our results differed from previous studies using tDCS to improve naming in patients with poststroke aphasia possibly due to bihemispheric stimulation, rarely used previously. The duration of the rehabilitation period was short given the linguistic complexity of the measure. This negative result should be confirmed by larger studies with ecological measures.
The loss of autonomy in elderly varies according to the individual health status, but also to the social and psychological environment. Multiple risk factors play a role, including limited access to a balanced diet, physical inactivity or a poor social network. Prevention programs must therefore be based on a multidimensional approach, but are rarely studied with regard to their effectiveness.
Materials and methods
The objective of the Auton'Al 60 program is to prevent the loss of autonomy related to diet, physical activity and mental health in elderly, aged 60 to 89, in the county of Oise, North of France. Between February and July 2018, 7 different prevention workshops were conducted in 5 geographical areas (urban and rural). A blog and a monthly newsletter have been created to limit the loss to follow- up. Evaluation was based on an in-depth interview at T0 inquiring about the level of autonomy, the dietary habits and the health status, as well as on 2 self-administered questionnaires during and at the end of the program. In addition, each workshop has been evaluated separately according to key indicators. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17.
69 workshops have been completed during 5 months. In total, 91 subjects (27.8% men - 71.9% women) participated in at least one workshop, with a mean age of 69.1 years (± 6.3). 72.6% of the subjects were present at 6 or 7 workshops, and 49.5% participated in all activities. A state of loss of autonomy was reported by 6.7% of the participants. 32.6% of the population were chronic-disease-free and 43.8% had a normal BMI (kg / m2). The prevalence of obesity was 15.7%. The program showed effectiveness to decrease the consumption of high-fat products in 52.9% as well as the consumption of sugary products in 60.9% of the participants. Furthermore, 23.2% of the subjects started a new social activity during the program. However, compared to other age groups observed fragility seemed to be particularly high in elderly aged from 66 to 69 years.
The Auton'Al 60 program confirms the heterogeneity in the level of autonomy, health status and health behavior in elderly. The multidimensional approach has shown satisfactory effectiveness. Prevention strategies have been developed for isolated or low-income subjects and are under current evaluation.
Longitudinal studies of the relationship between cognition and functioning in bipolar disorder are scarce, although cognition is thought to be a key determinant of functioning. The causal structure between cognition and psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder is unknown.
We sought to examine the direction of causality between cognitive performance and functional outcome over 2 years in a large cohort of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder.
The sample consisted of 272 adults diagnosed with bipolar disorder who were euthymic at baseline, 12 and 24 months. All participants were recruited via the FondaMental Advanced Centers of Expertise in Bipolar Disorders. We used a battery of tests, assessing six domains of cognition at baseline and 24 months. Residual depressive symptoms and psychosocial functioning were measured at baseline and 12 and 24 months. The possible causal structure between cognition and psychosocial functioning was investigated with cross-lagged panel models with residual depressive symptoms as a covariate.
The analyses support a causal model in which cognition moderately predicts and is causally primary to functional outcome 1 year later, whereas psychosocial functioning does not predict later cognitive performance. Subthreshold depressive symptoms concurrently affected functioning at each time of measure.
Our results are compatible with an upward causal effect of cognition on functional outcome in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. Neuropsychological assessment may help specify individual prognoses. Further studies are warranted to confirm this causal link and evaluate cognitive remediation, before or simultaneously with functional remediation, as an intervention to improve functional outcome.
The formalization of ‘informal’ customary land rights is at the core of current rural land policies in Africa. The dubious impacts of such policies on agricultural production, and the recomposition of land rights and governance they cause, have been studied widely. But their territorial dimensions are hardly acknowledged. Studying the implementation of a rural land rights formalization project in central Benin, this article highlights the links between territorialization and plot-level land rights formalization. It first unpacks the notion of the village and presents a conceptual framework for analysing the superimposition of and contradiction between customary and administrative territories. Using two case studies, it then examines the conflicts that arise during formalization operations and their outcomes in terms of the mapping of land rights and political and administrative change. This article shows how the political organization of the territory and the socio-spatial inequalities resulting from the history of settlement shape the results of plot-level land rights registration (which explains why large parts of village territories have not been registered), and, in turn, how these registration operations lead to new territorialization processes and increase the heterogeneity of land tenure rights within the territory.
In this introduction to the special section on globalization, regionalization, and multi-polarity, we review network analysis applications to the study of globalization as a complex and multi-dimensional phenomenon and we explore the frontiers of our knowledge about the network properties of global systems. We focus on the global economic (trade and investment), political, and migration systems.
Metabolic networks play a crucial role in biology since they capture all chemical reactions in an organism. While there are networks of high quality for many model organisms, networks for less studied organisms are often of poor quality and suffer from incompleteness. To this end, we introduced in previous work an answer set programming (ASP)-based approach to metabolic network completion. Although this qualitative approach allows for restoring moderately degraded networks, it fails to restore highly degraded ones. This is because it ignores quantitative constraints capturing reaction rates. To address this problem, we propose a hybrid approach to metabolic network completion that integrates our qualitative ASP approach with quantitative means for capturing reaction rates. We begin by formally reconciling existing stoichiometric and topological approaches to network completion in a unified formalism. With it, we develop a hybrid ASP encoding and rely upon the theory reasoning capacities of the ASP system clingo for solving the resulting logic program with linear constraints over reals. We empirically evaluate our approach by means of the metabolic network of Escherichia coli. Our analysis shows that our novel approach yields greatly superior results than obtainable from purely qualitative or quantitative approaches.
Previous research on motion expression indicates that typological properties influence how speakers select and express information in discourse (Slobin, 2004; Talmy, 2000). The present study further addresses this question by examining the expression of caused motion by adults and children (three to ten years) in French (Verb-framed) vs. English and German (Satellite-framed). Participants narrated short animated cartoons showing an agent displacing objects and varying along several dimensions (Path, Manner). A significant increase with age was found in the number of expressed motion components in all languages, as well as an influence of Path (vertical > boundary crossing). However, at all ages, participants encoded more information in English and German than in French, where more variation and structural changes occurred with increasing age. These findings highlight both cognitive and typological factors impacting the expression of caused motion in development. Implications of our findings are sketched in the ‘Discussion’.
Delirium is very frequent in older patients presenting to the emergency department (ED), but is often undetected. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the French version of the 4 A’s Test (4AT-F) for the detection of delirium and cognitive impairment in older patients.
The study was conducted in four Canadian ED. Participants (n= 320) were independent or semi-independent patients (able to perform ≥5 activities of daily living) aged 65 and older and had an 8-hour exposure to the ED environment. The Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m), the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) as well as the 4AT-F were administered to patients at the initial interview. The CAM and 4AT-F were then administered twice a day during the patients’ ED or hospital stay. The 4AT-F’s sensitivity and specificity were compared to those of the CAM (for delirium), and to that of the TICS (for cognitive impairment).
Our results suggest that the 4AT-F has a sensitivity of 84% (95% CI: [76, 93]) and a specificity of 74% (95% CI: [70, 78]) for delirium, as well as a sensitivity of 49% (95% CI: [34, 64]) and a specificity of 87% (95% CI: [82, 92]) for cognitive impairment.
The 4AT-F is a fast and reliable screening tool for delirium and cognitive impairment in ED. Due to its quick administration time, it allows a systematic screening of patients at risk of delirium, without significantly increasing the workload of the ED staff.
Cognitive deficits are a well-established feature of bipolar disorders (BD), even during periods of euthymia, but risk factors associated with cognitive deficits in euthymic BD are still poorly understood. We aimed to validate classification criteria for the identification of clinically significant cognitive impairment, based on psychometric properties, to estimate the prevalence of neuropsychological deficits in euthymic BD, and identify risk factors for cognitive deficits using a multivariate approach.
We investigated neuropsychological performance in 476 euthymic patients with BD recruited via the French network of BD expert centres. We used a battery of tests, assessing five domains of cognition. Five criteria for the identification of neuropsychological impairment were tested based on their convergent and concurrent validity. Uni- and multivariate logistic regressions between cognitive impairment and several clinical and demographic variables were performed to identify risk factors for neuropsychological impairment in BD.
One cut-off had satisfactory psychometric properties and yielded a prevalence of 12.4% for cognitive deficits in euthymic BD. Antipsychotics use were associated with the presence of a cognitive deficit.
This is the first study to validate a criterion for clinically significant cognitive impairment in BD. We report a lower prevalence of cognitive impairment than previous studies, which may have overestimated its prevalence. Patients with euthymic BD and cognitive impairment may benefit from cognitive remediation.
We implement a Bayesian statistical analysis of the chronology of Canímar Abajo in Cuba in order to estimate two episodes of burial activity and the period of time corresponding to the hiatus between them. We show that by using simple Bayesian modeling, conclusions can easily be reached by the analysis of the marginal posterior distribution of each parameter of the model. However, we also suggest and describe new statistical tools that exploit the joint posterior distribution of collections of dates. These new tools give complementary information regarding the chronology of human activity.
The relationship between residual depressive symptoms, cognition and functioning in patients with euthymic bipolar disorder is a subject of debate.
To assess whether cognition mediates the association between residual depressive symptoms and functioning in patients with bipolar disorder who were euthymic.
We included 241 adults with euthymic bipolar disorder in a multicentre cross-sectional study. We used a battery of tests to assess six cognition domains. A path analysis was then used to perform a mediation analysis of the relationship between residual depressive symptoms, cognitive components and functioning.
Only verbal and working memory were significantly associated with better functioning. Residual depressive symptoms were associated with poorer functioning. No significant relationship was found between residual depressive symptoms and any cognitive component.
Cognition and residual depressive symptoms appear to be two independent sources of variation in the functioning of people with euthymic bipolar disorder.
In the fast pace of the Emergency Department (ED), clinicians are in need of tailored screening tools to detect seniors who are at risk of adverse outcomes. We aimed to explore the usefulness of the Bergman-Paris Question (BPQ) to expose potential undetected geriatric syndromes in community-living seniors presenting to the ED.
This is a planned sub-study of the INDEED multicentre prospective cohort study, including independent or semi-independent seniors (≥65 years old) admitted to hospital after an ED stay ≥8 hours and who were not delirious. Patients were assessed using validated screening tests for 3 geriatric syndromes: cognitive and functional impairment, and frailty. The BPQ was asked upon availability of a relative at enrolment. BPQ’s sensitivity and specificity analyses were used to ascertain outcomes.
A response to the BPQ was available for 171 patients (47% of the main study’s cohort). Of this number, 75.4% were positive (suggesting impairment), and 24.6% were negative. To detect one of the three geriatric syndromes, the BPQ had a sensitivity of 85.4% (95% CI [76.3, 92.0]) and a specificity of 35.4% (95% CI [25.1, 46.7]). Similar results were obtained for each separate outcome. Odds ratio demonstrated a higher risk of presence of geriatric syndromes.
The Bergman-Paris Question could be an ED screening tool for possible geriatric syndrome. A positive BPQ should prompt the need of further investigations and a negative BPQ possibly warrants no further action. More research is needed to validate the usefulness of the BPQ for day-to-day geriatric screening by ED professionals or geriatricians.
The affiliations for the second, third, and fourth authors were incorrect or incomplete, the corrected title page for which is provided herein. We regret these errors and any problems they may have caused.