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The papers in this forum offer an interdisciplinary assessment of the state of the field of Anglican Studies and perspectives on future trajectories. The first three papers, on liturgy, history, and world Anglicanism, offer an assessment of the respective state of these areas of Anglican Studies. The second set, on theology, sociology of religion, and biblical studies, stake out positions on how these disciplines inform the work of Anglican Studies. A concluding essay offers a synthesis of these papers, focusing on the themes of local contexts for Anglicanism, a further complexification of decolonizing processes in Anglicanism, and the critical role of conversation in Anglican Studies regarding disciplines, languages, and power dynamics.
Family systems shape social institutions, yet they are rarely considered in histories of economic development. In this article, we show that a suite of social conventions—such as age gaps at marriage, bride price, sequestration, and discrimination and violence against women—are overrepresented in polygamous societies as compared to monogamous societies. This dichotomy can be explained on the grounds that polygamy produces a chronic scarcity of marriageable females. We argue that this suite, which we call gamos and which we quantify by two different methods, has demonstrably significant consequences for social, institutional, and economic development.
Numerous reports from countries, the UN, NGOs and the media underscore extensive human rights violations experienced by people with psychosocial disabilities, including the denial of the right to exercise their legal capacity. Within the mental health care context people report that services do not respond to their needs and fail to respect their will and preferences or to support community inclusion. This underscores the need to adopt a human rights approach in mental health and to radically shift the way services operate, towards care and support that is recovery and rights oriented and that ensures service users are the drivers of their own healthcare. WHO QualityRights, established in 2012, is an initiative to improve access to good-quality mental health and social services and to promote the rights of people with psychosocial disabilities worldwide in line with the CRPD. The initiative works in several areas: capacity building to combat stigma and discrimination and promote rights and recovery; creating community-based services that respect human rights and person-centered recovery approaches; supporting civil society movements and people with lived experience to conduct advocacy and influence policymaking; and reforming policy and law in line with the CRPD and other human rights standards.
To identify dietary self-monitoring implementation strategies in behavioural weight loss interventions.
We conducted a systematic review of eight databases and examined fifty-nine weight loss intervention studies targeting adults with overweight/obesity that used dietary self-monitoring.
We identified self-monitoring implementation characteristics, effectiveness of interventions in supporting weight loss and examined weight loss outcomes among higher and lower intensity dietary self-monitoring protocols. Included studies utilised diverse self-monitoring formats (paper, website, mobile app, phone) and intensity levels (recording all intake or only certain aspects of diet). We found the majority of studies using high- and low-intensity self-monitoring strategies demonstrated statistically significant weight loss in intervention groups compared with control groups.
Based on our findings, lower and higher intensity dietary self-monitoring may support weight loss, but variability in adherence measures and limited analysis of weight loss relative to self-monitoring usage limits our understanding of how these methods compare with each other.
Initiatives to optimise preconception health are emerging following growing recognition that this may improve the health and well-being of women and men of reproductive age and optimise health in their children. To inform and evaluate such initiatives, guidance is required on indicators that describe and monitor population-level preconception health. We searched relevant databases and websites (March 2021) to identify national and international preconception guidelines, recommendations and policy reports. These were reviewed to identify preconception indicators. Indicators were aligned with a measure describing the prevalence of the indicator as recorded in national population-based data sources in England. From 22 documents reviewed, we identified 66 indicators across 12 domains. Domains included wider (social/economic) determinants of health; health care; reproductive health and family planning; health behaviours; environmental exposures; cervical screening; immunisation and infections; mental health, physical health; medication and genetic risk. Sixty-five of the 66 indicators were reported in at least one national routine health data set, survey or cohort study. A measure of preconception health assessment and care was not identified in any current national data source. Perspectives from three (healthcare) professionals described how indicator assessment and monitoring may influence patient care and inform awareness campaign development. This review forms the foundation for developing a national surveillance system for preconception health in England. The identified indicators can be assessed using national data sources to determine the population’s preconception needs, improve patient care, inform and evaluate new campaigns and interventions and enhance accountability from responsible agencies to improve preconception health.
Evidence about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of specific subpopulations, such as university students, is needed as communities prepare for future waves.
To study the association of proximity of COVID-19 with symptoms of anxiety and depression in university students.
This trend study analysed weekly cross-sectional surveys of probabilistic samples of students from the University of British Columbia for 13 weeks, through the first wave of COVID-19. The main variable assessed was propinquity of COVID-19, defined as ‘knowing someone who tested positive for COVID-19’, which was specified at different levels: knowing someone anywhere globally, in Canada, in Vancouver, in their course or at home. Proximity was included in multivariable linear regressions to assess its association with primary outcomes, including 30-day symptoms of anxiety and/or depression.
Of 1388 respondents (adjusted response rate of 50%), 5.6% knew someone with COVID-19 in Vancouver, 0.8% in their course and 0.3% at home. Ten percent were overwhelmed and unable to access help. Knowing someone in Vancouver was associated with an 11-percentage-point increase in the probability of 30-day anxiety symptoms (s.e. 0.05, P ≤ 0.05), moderated by gender, with a significant interaction of the exposure and being female (coefficient −20, s.e. 0.09, P ≤ 0.05). No association was found with depressive symptoms.
Propinquity of COVID-19 cases may increase the likelihood of anxiety symptoms in students, particularly among men. Most students reported coping well, but additional support is needed for an emotionally overwhelmed minority who report being unable to access help.
Neoliberal land reforms to increase economic development have important implications for biodiversity conservation. This paper investigates land reform in New Zealand’s South Island that divides leased state-owned stations (ranches) with private grazing leases into state-owned conservation land, private land owned by the former leaseholder and private land under protective covenant (similar to conservation easement). Conserved lands had less threatened vegetation, lower productivity, less proximity to towns and steeper slopes than privatized lands. Covenants on private land were more common in intermediate zones with moderate land-use productivity and slope. Lands identified with ecological or recreational ‘significant inherent values’ were more likely to shift into conserved or covenant status. Yet among lands with identified ecological values, higher-threat areas were more likely to be privatized than lower-threat areas. This paper makes two novel contributions: (1) quantitatively examining the role of scientific recommendations about significant inherent values in land reform outcomes; and (2) examining the use of conservation covenants on privatized land. To achieve biodiversity goals, it is critical to avoid or prevent the removal of land-use restrictions beyond protected areas.
Coronavirus-related conspiracy theories (CT) have been found to be associated with fewer pandemic containment-focused behaviors. It is therefore important to evaluate associated cognitive factors. We aimed to obtain first endorsement rate estimates of coronavirus-related conspiracy beliefs in a German-speaking general population sample and investigate whether delusion-related reasoning biases and paranoid ideation are associated with such beliefs.
We conducted a cross-sectional non-probability online study, quota-sampled for age and gender, with 1684 adults from Germany and German-speaking Switzerland. We assessed general and specific coronavirus conspiracy beliefs, reasoning biases [jumping-to-conclusions bias (JTC), liberal acceptance bias (LA), bias against disconfirmatory evidence (BADE), possibility of being mistaken (PM)], and paranoid ideation, using established experimental paradigms and self-report questionnaires.
Around 10% of our sample endorsed coronavirus-related CT beliefs at least strongly, and another 20% to some degree. Overall endorsement was similar to levels observed in a UK-based study (Freeman et al., 2020b). Higher levels of conspiracy belief endorsement were associated with greater JTC, greater LA, greater BADE, higher PM, and greater paranoid ideation. Associations were mostly small to moderate and best described by non-linear relationships.
A noticeable proportion of our sample recruited in Germany and German-speaking Switzerland endorsed coronavirus conspiracy beliefs strongly or to some degree. These beliefs are associated with reasoning biases studied in delusion research. The non-probability sampling approach limits the generalizability of findings. Future longitudinal and experimental studies investigating conspiracy beliefs along the lines of reasoning are encouraged to validate reasoning aberrations as risk factors.
Hurricane Harvey (2017) forced the closure of hemodialysis centers across Harris County, Texas (USA) disrupting the provision of dialysis services. This study aims to estimate the percentage of hemodialysis clinics flooded after Harvey, to identify the proportion of such clinics located in high-risk flood zones, and to assess the sensitivity of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) for estimation of flood risk.
Data on 124 hemodialysis clinics in Harris County were extracted from Medicare.gov and geocoded using ArcGIS Online. The FIRMs were overlaid to identify the flood zone designation of each hemodialysis clinic.
Twenty-one percent (26 of 124) of hemodialysis clinics in Harris County flooded after Harvey. Of the flooded clinics, 57.7% were in a high-risk flood zone, 30.8% were within 1km of a high-risk flood zone, and 11.5% were not in or near a high-risk flood zone. The FIRMs had a sensitivity of 58%, misidentifying 42% (11 of 26) of the clinics flooded.
Hurricanes are associated with severe disruptions of medical services, including hemodialysis. With one-quarter of Harris County in the 100-year floodplain, projected increases in the frequency and severity of disasters, and inadequate updates of flood zone designation maps, the implementation of new regulations that address the development of hemodialysis facilities in high-risk flood areas should be considered.
We can all agree that institutions matter, though as to which institutions matter most, and how much any of them matter, the matter is, paraphrasing Douglass North's words at the Nobel podium, unresolved after seven decades of immense effort. We suggest that the obstacle to progress is the paradigm of the New Institutional Economics itself. In this paper, we propose a new theory that is: grounded in institutions as coevolving sources of economic growth rather than as rules constraining growth; and deployed in dynamical systems theory rather than game theory. We show that with our approach some long-standing problems are resolved, in particular, the paradoxical and perplexingly pervasive influence of informal constraints on the long-run character of economies.
The concept of autonomy is essential in the practice and study of gerontology and in long-term care policies. For older adults with expanding care needs, scores from tightly specified assessment instruments, which aim to measure the autonomy of service users, usually determine access to social services. These instruments emphasise functional independence in the performance of activities of daily living. In an effort to broaden the understanding of autonomy into needs assessment practice, the province of Québec (Canada) added social and relational elements into the assessment tool. In the wake of these changes, this article studies the interaction between the use of assessment instruments and the extent to which they alter how older adults define their autonomy as service users. This matters since the conceptualisation of autonomy shapes the formulation of long-term care policy problems, influencing both the demand and supply of services and the types of services that ought to be prioritised by governments. Relying on focus groups, this study shows that the functional autonomy frame dominates problem definitions, while social/relational framings are marginal. This reflects the more authoritative weight of functional autonomy within the assessment tool and contributes to the biomedicalisation of aging.
The COVID-19 pandemic changed the clinical research landscape in America. The most urgent challenge has been to rapidly review protocols submitted by investigators that were designed to learn more about or intervene in COVID-19. International Review Board (IRB) offices developed plans to rapidly review protocols related to the COVID-19 pandemic. An online survey was conducted with the IRB Directors at Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) institutions as well as two focus groups. Across the CTSA institutions, 66% reviewed COVID-19 protocols across all their IRB committees, 22% assigned protocols to just one committee, and 10% created a new committee for COVID-19 protocols. Fifty-two percent reported COVID-19 protocols were reviewed much faster, 41% somewhat faster, and 7% at the same speed as other protocols. Three percent reported that the COVID-19 protocols were reviewed with much better quality, 32% reported slightly better quality, and 65% reported the reviews were of the same quality as similar protocols before the COVID-19 pandemic. IRBs were able to respond to the emergent demand for reviewing COVID-19 protocols. Most of the increased review capacity was due to extra effort by IRB staff and members and not changes that will be easily implemented across all research going forward.
This interdisciplinary study presents a human perspective on climatic variations by combining documentary, discursive, instrumental, and proxy data. Historical sources were used to characterize climate variations along the coast of Labrador/Nunatsiavut during the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century. Written and early instrumental archives provided original information on the state and perception of climate before the establishment of meteorological stations, which permitted an intra-annual perspective on climatic variations. Written sources depicted the sensitivity of humans to climatic variations. Exceptional seasonal climatic events were extracted from documentary and discursive sources, which were complemented by tree-ring and early instrumental data. From 1780 to 1900, data indicated a succession of relatively warm and cold episodes. Most warm periods were described as stormy and variable. The final part of the studied records showed cold conditions from 1900 to 1925 and warm conditions from 1925 to 1950. Historical sources helped to discriminate a seasonal signal. Mild autumn-winter conditions were recorded since 1910 in relation with positive anomalies of the North Atlantic Oscillation in winter. Relatively warm spring-summer conditions were recorded after 1920, which corresponds to a phase of positive anomaly of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation.
To associate dietary patterns and food neophobia in low-income preschoolers.
This was a cross-sectional study using a semi-structured questionnaire for socio-demographic data, birth conditions and breast-feeding history. Food neophobia was assessed using an adapted version of the Child Food Neophobia Scale. Children’s nutritional status was assessed using BMI-for-age and height-for-age Z-scores. Dietary patterns were estimated using a semi-quantitative FFQ through exploratory factor analysis. Multiple linear regression was used to test for an association between food neophobia and dietary pattern adherence.
Philanthropic childhood education schools in Aracaju, an urban community in northeastern Brazil, between July and December 2017.
Two hundred fourteen children aged 3–6 years and their parents.
The percentages of low/medium and high food neophobia among preschoolers were 85·9 % and 11·2 %, respectively. Children with high food neophobia more frequently consumed ultra-processed foods rich in sugars (snacks, filled and unfilled cookies and sweets), as well as protein-rich foods (white meat, cheese and yogurt). Three dietary patterns were identified (traditional, snacks and school snacks). Children with a high level of neophobia had lower adherence to traditional dietary patterns.
A high level of food neophobia among socially vulnerable preschoolers is an eating behaviour related to unhealthy eating and is associated with the poorest diet in typical foods.
To describe changes in the environmental microbiota of a new neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and potential implications for infection prevention and control (IPC) efforts.
Prospective observational study.
A newly constructed level IV neonatal cardiac intensive care unit (NCICU) before and after patient introduction and the original NICU prior to patient transfer.
Environmental samples were obtained from the original NICU prior to patient transfer to a new NCICU. Serial sampling of patient rooms and provider areas of the new NICU was conducted immediately prior to patient introduction and over an 11-month study period. Microbiota at each sampling point were characterized using Illumina sequencing of the V3/V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Microbiota characteristics (α and β diversity and differential abundance) were compared based on time, location, and clinical factors (room-level antibiotic use and patient turnover).
An immediate increase in the environmental differential abundance of gut anaerobes were seen after patient introduction. There was an increase in the relative abundance of Staphylococcus spp, Klebsiella spp, Pseudomonas spp, and Streptococcus spp over time. The new NCICU consistently showed more diverse microbiota and remained distinct from the original NICU. The microbiota of the provider areas of the NCICU eventually formed a cluster separate from the patient rooms. Patient turnover increased room-level microbiota diversity.
Microbiota characteristics of the new NICU were distinct from the original ICU despite housing similar patients. Patient and provider areas developed distinct microbiota profiles. Non–culture-based methods may be a useful adjunct to current IPC practice.
Less is known about the relationship between conduct disorder (CD), callous–unemotional (CU) traits, and positive and negative parenting in youth compared to early childhood. We combined traditional univariate analyses with a novel machine learning classifier (Angle-based Generalized Matrix Learning Vector Quantization) to classify youth (N = 756; 9–18 years) into typically developing (TD) or CD groups with or without elevated CU traits (CD/HCU, CD/LCU, respectively) using youth- and parent-reports of parenting behavior. At the group level, both CD/HCU and CD/LCU were associated with high negative and low positive parenting relative to TD. However, only positive parenting differed between the CD/HCU and CD/LCU groups. In classification analyses, performance was best when distinguishing CD/HCU from TD groups and poorest when distinguishing CD/HCU from CD/LCU groups. Positive and negative parenting were both relevant when distinguishing CD/HCU from TD, negative parenting was most relevant when distinguishing between CD/LCU and TD, and positive parenting was most relevant when distinguishing CD/HCU from CD/LCU groups. These findings suggest that while positive parenting distinguishes between CD/HCU and CD/LCU, negative parenting is associated with both CD subtypes. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple parenting behaviors in CD with varying levels of CU traits in late childhood/adolescence.
Life course research embraces the complexity of health and disease development, tackling the extensive interactions between genetics and environment. This interdisciplinary blueprint, or theoretical framework, offers a structure for research ideas and specifies relationships between related factors. Traditionally, methodological approaches attempt to reduce the complexity of these dynamic interactions and decompose health into component parts, ignoring the complex reciprocal interaction of factors that shape health over time. New methods that match the epistemological foundation of the life course framework are needed to fully explore adaptive, multilevel, and reciprocal interactions between individuals and their environment. The focus of this article is to (1) delineate the differences between lifespan and life course research, (2) articulate the importance of complex systems science as a methodological framework in the life course research toolbox to guide our research questions, (3) raise key questions that can be asked within the clinical and translational science domain utilizing this framework, and (4) provide recommendations for life course research implementation, charting the way forward. Recent advances in computational analytics, computer science, and data collection could be used to approximate, measure, and analyze the intertwining and dynamic nature of genetic and environmental factors involved in health development.
Instruction in regular letter-sound relationships is a key element of teaching children to read. However, in the English language, many words have irregular spellings (e.g. said, are, yacht). What is the best way to help children learn to read these words? To date, a number of different viewpoints have been put forward, but these viewpoints are seldom directly compared, and there is very little empirical evidence to adjudicate between them. Therefore, in this review, we outline the theoretical arguments for and against different methods of instruction, and synthesise the empirical research that does exist. We make recommendations for practice, and outline key areas where further evidence is required.